The NCCPA™ Cardiology PANCE and PANRE Content Blueprint covers 5 different types of congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease can be divided into two categories: Cyanotic and Noncyanotic
Noncyanotic heart defects
|Atrial septal defect||Systolic ejection murmur at 2nd left intercostal space with an early to mid-systolic rumble and fixed splitting of the 2nd heart sound (s2)
|Coarctation of aorta||Higher blood pressures in the arms than in the legs and pulses are bounding in the arms but decreased in the legs.
|Patent ductus arteriosus||A continuous "machinery murmur" at the upper left sternal border, treat with indomethacin
** remember the patient got a patent for his machine!
|Ventricular septal defect||VSD is the most common pathologic murmur in childhood, loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur at the lower left sternal border
|Tetralogy of Fallot||Crescendo-decrescendo, holosystolic at LSB radiating to the back - cyanosis, clubbing,
Four features, "tet spells", baby with cyanosis and LOC with crying