PANCE Blueprint Infectious Disease (6%)

PANCE Blueprint Infectious Disease (6%)

PANCE Blueprint Infectious Disease (6%)

Follow Along with the NCCPA™ PANCE and PANRE Infectious Disease Content Blueprint


  1. Infectious Disease Exam (Members Only)

  2. Infectious Disease Flashcards (Members Only)

    1. Infectious Disease Quick Cram Cards

  3. Bacterial Disease (PEARLS)

    1. Botulism (Lecture)

      Gram-positive bacteria associated with home canned food products
      • Presents as muscle weakness and respiratory paralysis, “floppy babies.”
      • Exposure to moist heat at 120° C (248° F) for 30 min kills the spores. Toxins, on the other hand, are readily destroyed by heat and cooking food at 80° C (176° F) for 30 min safeguards against botulism.
      • Honey (no honey for babies) - it is recommended that you wait until your baby is at least 12 months before introducing honey.
      • Treatment: Botulinum antitoxin
    2. Campylobacter jejuni infection (Lecture)

      The most common cause of acute bacterial diarrhea
      • Food (e.g., contaminated meat, especially poultry)
      • Gastroenteritis with blood and pus in stools, ten or more stools per day
      • Treat with fluoroquinolone or azithromycin
    3. Chlamydia (Lecture)

      Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection
      • Gram-negative, intracellular rod
      • Most females with C. trachomatis infections are asymptomatic but can cause cervicitis, urethritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease in women
      • Men typically present with nongonococcal urethritis (mucoid or watery/clear urethral discharge and dysuria)
      • Diagnosis: Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is the gold standard. Gram stain reveals no organisms
      • The CDC recommended treatment for chlamydia is doxycycline 100 mg PO BID × 7 days. Alternative regimens include azithromycin 1 g orally in a single dose OR levofloxacin 500 mg orally once daily for 7 days
      • CDC recommended treatment for gonorrhea is ceftriaxone 500 mg IM as a single dose for persons weighing < 300 lbs
      • In pregnancy azithromycin 1 gm x 1 dose or amoxicillin TID x 7 days
      • To minimize disease transmission to sex partners, persons treated for chlamydia should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse for 7 days after single-dose therapy or until completion of a 7-day regimen and resolution of symptoms if present.
      • Treat partners and educate them to refrain from sex until the infection is treated
      • The treatment of neonatal conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is oral erythromycin
    4. Cholera (Lecture)

      Caused by Vibrio cholerae a gram-negative bacteria which secretes a toxin that causes a life-threatening, rice water diarrhea.
      • Typically through contaminated water or seafood.
      • Diagnosis is confirmed by stool culture.
      • Endemic areas: India, Southeast Asia, Africa, Middle East, Southern Europe, Oceania, South and Central America.
      • Treat with oral rehydration antibiotics (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines).
    5. Diphtheria (lecture)

      URI with thick gray pseudomembrane in the throat that bleeds if scrapped in someone who wasn’t vaccinated.
      • May have neck swelling due to enlarged cervical lymphadenopathy (BULL NECK).
      • Rare in the US due to routine vaccination at 2,4,6 and 15-18 months with a booster at 4-6 years of age.
      • Treat with antitoxin and antibiotic (penicillin or macrolide).
    6. Gonococcal infections (Lecture)

      Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae - gram-negative diplococci.
      • Women: often asymptomatic. Prolonged infection can result in pelvic inflammatory disease when the bacterium travels into the pelvic peritoneum.
      • Men: yellow, creamy, profuse and purulent discharge.
      • Ceftriaxone 500mg (or 1 g for individuals weighing > 330 lbs) IM in a single dose + treatment for chlamydia (azithromycin 1 g PO single dose or doxycycline 100 mg PO BID for 7 days).
      • Gonococcal pharyngitis is usually asymptomatic but may cause a sore throat.
      • Neonatal conjunctivitis and pharyngitis.
      • Disseminated infections can occur resulting in septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and pustules on the hands and feet.
    7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection (Lecture)

      Common in diabetics, hospitals, prisons, IV drug users, and nursing homes, where people with open wounds, invasive devices such as catheters, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of hospital-acquired infection Treat with irrigation and debridement
      • Mupirocin 2% - initial treatment of small lesions
      • Oral antibiotics for larger lesions: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline, minocycline, or clindamycin; linezolid and tedizolid are other options but are very expensive
      • IV antibiotics for more severe infections: vancomycin, linezolid, tedizolid, daptomycin, tigecycline
    8. Rheumatic fever (Lecture)

      Although rheumatic fever follows a streptococcal throat infection (strep throat), it is not an infection. Rather, it is an inflammatory reaction to Group A Strep with the formation of antistreptolysin antibodies (ASO) which react with proteins on the synovium, heart muscle, and heart valves.
      • Jones criteria: 2 major criteria or 1 major and 2 minor criteria are required for diagnosis, along with evidence of preceding GAS infection.
        • Major criteria: carditis, chorea, erythema marginatum, polyarthritis, subcutaneous nodules.
        • Minor criteria: arthralgia, elevated ESR or C-reactive protein, fever, prolonged PR interval (on ECG).
      • Treat with Penicillin G.
      • Antistreptococcal prophylaxis with Penicillin G/V should be maintained continuously for 5-10 years after the initial episode of ARF to prevent recurrences.
    9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Lecture)

      Caused by Rickettsia rickettsii a species of bacterium that is spread to humans by the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis).
      • 2-14 days after tick bite will develop flu-like symptoms: fevers and chills, myalgias, and headache.
      • Red maculopapular rash first on wrists and ankles (palms and soles) then spreading centrally over 2-3 days. The face is usually spared.
      • Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test remains the standard method of diagnosis of RMSF.
      • Treat with doxycycline or chloramphenicol second line.
    10. Salmonellosis (Lecture)

      Although there are many types of Salmonella, they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and enteric fever and those that primarily induce gastroenteritis:
      • Enteric fever (salmonella typhi): a flu-like bacterial infection characterized by fever, GI symptoms, and headache. Transmitted via the consumption of fecally contaminated food or water.
        • GI symptoms may be marked constipation or "pea soup diarrhea."
        • Rose spots may be present (2-3 mm papule on trunk usually).
        • More common in the developing world (usually immigration cases).
      • Gastroenteritis (salmonella Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Newport): results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material.
        • It is estimated that 1 in 10,000 egg yolks is infected with Salmonella enteritidis.
      • Treat with ceftriaxone or other medications based on sensitivity.
    11. Shigellosis (Lecture)

      Gram-negative bacteria shigella that results in watery diarrhea or dysentery (the frequent and often painful passage of small amounts of stool that contains blood, pus, and mucus).
      • Illness starts abruptly with diarrhea, lower abdominal cramps, and tenesmus accompanied by fever, chills, anorexia, headache, and malaise.
      • Stools are loose and mixed with blood and mucus. The abdomen is tender; dehydration is common.
      • Treat with TMP-SMX or ciprofloxacin
    12. Tetanus (Lecture)

      Tetanus results from a toxin produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin makes muscles become rigid and contract involuntarily (spasm).
      • Clostridium tetani spores are ubiquitous in soil. The spores germinate in wounds where the bacteria produce a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin), which interferes with neurotransmission at spinal synapses of inhibitory neurons. The result is uncontrolled spasm and exaggerated reflexes.
      • Puncture wounds are most susceptible. The elderly, migrant workers, newborns, and injection drug users are at particular risk.
      • Treatment: Immunoglobulin, wound debridement and penicillin. High mortality.
      • Vaccination: 
        • DTaP is usually given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months, with an additional dose at 4 to 6 years
        • Tdap adolescent preparation is recommended at age 11 to 12 years for those who have completed the recommended childhood DTP/ DTaP vaccination series and have not received a tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td) booster dose.
        • Subsequent boosters are recommended every 10 years.
  4. Fungal Disease (PEARLS)

    1. Candidiasis (Lecture)

      Very common in AIDS patients, EGD of esophageal Candidiasis will demonstrate linear erosions on endoscopy, treat with fluconazole.
    2. Cryptococcosis (Lecture)

      AIDS-defining illness, diagnose with CSF and serum serology.
      • Transmission is through inhalation. Budding yeast found in soil contaminated with pigeon/bird droppings.
      • India ink may be positive.
      • Treat with amphotericin B + flucytosine for two weeks followed by fluconazole for 10 weeks.
      • Prophylaxis: fluconazole if CD4 < 100.
    3. Histoplasmosis (Lecture)

      AIDS-defining illness, associated with soil containing birds and bat droppings in the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
      • Highest risk is with a CD4 < 100. Patients develop fever and multiorgan failure; fulminant disease, septic shock, and death are common.
      • ↑ Alkaline phosphatase and LDH, (+) blood cultures if disseminated
      • Itraconazole orally for weeks to months or Amphotericin B  if severe or failed Itraconazole
      • In general antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole is not administered to prevent primary infection without special indications.
    4. Pneumocystis (Lecture)

      Originally called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, then renamed Pneumocystis jirovecii but still referred to as PCP.
      • Most common opportunistic infection in patients with HIV especially if CD4 count < 200.
      • Chest x-ray characteristically shows diffuse, bilateral perihilar infiltrates.
      • Treat with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) and steroids. If sulpha allergy, pentamidine.
      • Prophylaxis with daily Bactrim for high-risk patients with a CD4 < 200 or with a history of PJP infection.
  5. Mycobacterial Disease (PEARLS)

    1. Atypical mycobacterial disease (Lecture)

      Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) - HIV patients with CD4 < 50
      • Very common. Fever, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia.
      • Present in soil and water (not person to person).
      • Symptoms rarely occur in immunocompetent patients (increased in bronchiectasis). HIV patients when CD4 < 50.
      • Diagnose with AFB and culture.
      • Treat with clarithromycin + ethambutol for at least 12 months (+/- rifampin).
      • Prophylaxis for HIV patients with (azithromycin or clarithromycin) if CD4 < 50.
    2. Tuberculosis (ReelDx + Lecture)

      Mycobacterium tuberculosis - transmitted by respiratory droplets
      • Classic findings include fever, night sweats, anorexia, and weight loss
      • PPD Rules: Area of induration = raised area (not the red area)
        • < 5 mm in HIV
        • < 10 mm in high-risk areas (healthcare worker or possible known exposure)
        • < 15 mm for non-exposed
      • Diagnose TB with sputum for AFB smears and cultures
      If PPD/IGRA is POSITIVE, order a CXR PPD positive or IGRA + CXR negative = Latent TBCDC recommends short-course, rifamycin-based, 3- or 4-month latent TB infection treatment regimens over 6- or 9-month isoniazid monotherapy
        • Three months of once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine (3HP)
        • Four months of daily rifampin (4R)
        • Three months of daily isoniazid plus rifampin (3HR)
      PPD positive or IGRA + CXR positive = Active TB ⇒ Several treatment regimens are recommended in the United States for active TB disease. TB treatment can take 4, 6, or 9 months depending on the regimen.
        • 4-month Rifapentinemoxifloxacin TB treatment regimen
          • High-dose daily rifapentine (RPT) with
          • Moxifloxacin (MOX): QT-prolonging agent and has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias, which may be fatal
          • Isoniazid (INH) and
          • Pyrazinamide (PZA)
        • 6- or 9-month quad therapy (RIPE) TB treatment regimen:
          • Rifampin (RIF): Orange body fluids, hepatitis - "remember R = red/orange body fluids"
          • Isoniazid (INH): peripheral neuropathy (given with B6 - pyridoxine 25 to 50 mg/day)
          • Pyrazinamide (PZA): Hyperuricemia (Gout)
          • Ethambutol (EMB): Optic neuritis, red-green blindness - "remember E = eyes"
      All are hepatotoxic, so you need to get baseline labs
      • Patients with active TB will need two negative AFB smears and cultures in a row for therapy cessation
      • D/C therapy if transaminases > 3-5 × ULN
      • Pts on INH should take supplemental Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine 25-50mg/day) to prevent neuropathy
      • Monitor serum creatinine; take meds on an empty stomach since food can reduce absorption, watch for hepatotoxicity, be aware of drug interactions, especially with HIV meds
  6. Parasitic Disease (PEARLS)

    1. Helminth (worm-like parasites) infestations (Lecture)

      Helminths are worm-like parasites that infect several species. Those that infect humans include the following:
      • Nematodes: roundworm (Ascaris), hookworm, pinworm – Cause GI symptoms and cough! Treat with mebendazole

        • Pinworm: anal pruritus in a child in the morning, scotch tape test – the parent will go in early in the morning before the child wakes and apply scotch tape on the rectum and present for exam, also with pinworm paddles
        • Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) - most common intestinal helminth worldwide found in contaminated soil - small worm load will be asymptomatic. Larger load may cause vague abdominal symptoms, a high load may migrate to the pancreatic duct, bile duct, appendix, diverticula and cause symptoms at the site
      • Cestodes: Tapeworms – Cause GI symptoms and weight loss! Treat with praziquantel

      • Trematodes: flukes, including Schistosoma, avian and mammal schistosomes (cercarial dermatitis or swimmer’s itch)

      In any parasitic infection, eosinophilia may be present Treatment:
      • Pinworm and most other roundworms with mebendazole
      • Tapeworms and flukes with praziquantel
    2. Malaria (Lecture)

      Periods chills, fever ( every 3 days) and sweats. Caused by plasmodium vivax, p. malaria, p.ovale, p. falciparum (most virulent).
      • Transmitted by Anopheles mosquito.
      • Splenomegaly typically after > 4 days of symptoms.
      • Diagnose with Giemsa stain peripheral smear (thin and thick) - parasites in RBCs, thrombocytopenia, increased LDH.
      • Treat with chloroquine or mefloquine for chloroquine-resistant p. falciparum.
      • Recommendations for drugs to prevent malaria differ by country of travel and can be found in the country-specific tables of the Yellow Book.
        • Doxycycline 100 mg once daily (started one day before travel, and continued for four weeks after returning).
        • Mefloquine 250 mg once weekly (started two-and-a-half weeks before travel, and continued for four weeks after returning).
        • Atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone) 1 tablet daily (started one day before travel, and continued for 1 week after returning). Can also be used for therapy in some cases.
      • In areas where chloroquine remains effective:
        • Chloroquine 300 mg once weekly, and proguanil 200 mg once daily (started one week before travel, and continued for four weeks after returning).
        • Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg once weekly (started one to two weeks before travel and continued for four weeks after returning).
    3. Pinworms (Lecture)

      Also known as enterobiasis vermicularis, is a human parasitic disease caused by the pinworm (a type of roundworm). The most common symptom is itching in the anal area. This can make sleeping difficult.
      • Perianal itching especially at night (eggs are laid at night).
      • Eggs cling to the fingers while itching and are transmitted to other people either directly or through food or surfaces.
      • The eggs can thrive for 2-3 weeks on an inanimate object.
      • Diagnosis is with "scotch tape test' done in the early morning. Can see the football-shaped ova under microscopy.
      • Treatment is with albendazole or mebendazole.
    4. Toxoplasmosis (Lecture)

      Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoa that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
      • Triad of encephalitis + chorioretinitis + intracranial calcifications in AIDS patients with a CD4 < 100.
      • Pregnant female with exposure to cat feces: Toxoplasmosis is the reason we tell pregnant mothers not to change cat litter.
      • CT of the brain shows ring-enhancing lesions.
      • Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) - positive for anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM.
      • Congenital toxoplasmosis is part of ToRCH syndrome.
      • Prophylaxis for all HIV patients with CD4 count < 100 with Bactrim.
  7. Prenatal transmission of disorders (PEARLS)

    1. Congenital varicella (Lecture)

      Varicella infection in pregnant women could lead to spread via the placenta and infection of the fetus. If infection occurs during the first 28 weeks of gestation, this can lead to congenital varicella syndrome
      • Congenital varicella syndrome is associated with a mortality rate of 30 percent in the first few months of life and a 15 percent risk of developing herpes zoster in the first four years of life
      • For pregnant women who have had immunization or previous infection antibodies produced as a result of are transferred via the placenta to the fetus and are therefore not at risk
      Diagnose with PCR testing of fetal blood or amniotic fluid for VZV DNA in conjunction with ultrasonography for detection of fetal abnormalities Postexposure prophylaxis and vaccination
      • Treat with VariZIG, a varicella-zoster immune globulin in all nonimmune pregnant women who have been exposed to persons with VZV within 10 days of exposure
      • Postexposure prophylaxis is not needed among women who were immunized with varicella vaccine or had varicella in the past
      • All nonpregnant women who do not have evidence of immunity to varicella should be offered the standard dosing of vaccine (ie, 2 doses four to eight weeks apart)
      • Women should avoid becoming pregnant for one month after immunization because of theoretical concerns regarding risk to the fetus
    2. Genital herpes simplex virus infection and pregnancy (Lecture)

      HSV is one of the TORCH infections and infants that pass through the vaginal canal in a female with an outbreak of genital herpes can develop neonatal herpes
      • Neonatal herpes is characterized by multiple vesicular lesions on the skin or involvement of internal organs or the central nervous system
      • The highest risk for neonatal infection occurs in women with a primary genital HSV infection acquired near the time of delivery
      • Treatment: The risk of transmission can be decreased by treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases
    3. Perinatal Human papillomavirus

      No link has been found between HPV and miscarriage, premature delivery, or other pregnancy complications
      • The risk of transmitting the virus to the baby is considered very low
      • In very rare cases, a baby born to a woman who has genital warts will develop respiratory papillomatosis (warts in the throat)
      • PAP test at first prenatal visit - need for further testing (colposcopy/biopsy which are safe in pregnancy) will follow the same guidelines as for the non-pregnant female
    4. Zika Virus (Lecture)

      An enveloped single-stranded RNA flavivirus transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquito
      • Emerging threat U.S. and globally particularly for pregnant women
      • Patients may present with macular pruritic rash, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, low-grade fever, and miscarriage
      • May potentially penetrate through the placental barrier, leading to teratogenicity
      • Fetuses may have microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and cerebral malformation
      • Labs include serum or urine Zika virus IgM with real-time PCR for confirmatory testing
      • Screen pregnant women with risk factors during the first and second trimester
      • Typically, the disease is self-limited and treatment consists of conservative and supportive care
      • Aspirin and NSAIDs should be avoided
  8. Sepsis is a systemic infection that triggers a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the body in response to toxins
    • The initiating event may result from an infection, major surgery, trauma, burns, or acute pancreatitis
    • Common symptoms include fever, hypotension from systemic vasodilation, ↑ WBC, change in LOC, tachycardia, and tachypnea
    • Some patients may also present with significant edema due to fluid shift, along with elevated blood glucose levels
    • Risk factor include increased aged, immunosuppressed individuals, and prolonged hospitalization
    • Severe sepsis is sepsis causing poor organ function or insufficient blood flow which may be evident by low blood pressure, high blood lactate, or low urine output
    • Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous fluids are given
    • Quick SOFA – Use to predict mortality, NOT to diagnose sepsis
      • New or worsened mentation
      • Respiratory rate greater than or equal to 22/min
      • Systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 100 mmHg
    • Treatment involves identifying and removing the cause - patients often require ICU admission
      • IV fluids/pressors to support blood pressure (may be best initial step depending on the case)
      • Empiric antibiotics, send blood cultures
      • Remove all existing catheters, IV lines, central lines, culture
  9. Spirochetal Disease (PEARLS)

    1. Lyme disease (Lecture)

      Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi (gram negative spirochete) that is spread by Ixodes (deer) tick.
      • Early localized: usually 7-10 days after bite - erythema migrans rash “bullseye.”
      • Early disseminated: 1-12 weeks after bite - musculoskeletal, flu-like syndrome, consisting of malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache, stiff neck, myalgias, and arthralgias that may last for weeks, cardiac (AV block).
      • Late disease: persistent synovitis and arthritis.
      • ELISA testing will be positive by 3rd week
      • Treat with doxycycline or amoxicillin (10-21 days) is started immediately after diagnosis.
      • Prophylaxis: doxycycline 200 mg x 1 dose within 72 hours if Ixodes tick.
    2. Syphilis

      Caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.
      • The disease has 3 phases, with an incubation period of about 3 weeks:
        • Primary syphilis: presents as a painless chancre in the genital or groin region persisting 3 to 6 weeks.
        • Secondary syphilis: presents as an erythematous rash involving the palms and soles or a condyloma lata which is similar to the lesions of primary syphilis in its infectivity but differs in appearance.
        • Tertiary syphilis (latent): Affects about 30% and is a representation of widespread systemic involvement and can present with major vessel changes, such as in the aorta, permanent CNS changes (neurosyphilis), or even benign mucosal growths called gummas.
      • Diagnosis is by RPR/VDRL and confirmed by treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS). Lyme disease can cause a false positive.
      • Treatment is with IM benzathine penicillin for primary and secondary disease. IV penicillin G (for Gummas) for congenital and late disease.
  10. Viral Infectious Disease (PEARLS)

    1. Cytomegalovirus infections (ReelDx + Lecture)

      Enveloped double-stranded linear DNA virus in the herpesvirus family. It is also called human herpesvirus 5. It can cause infections that have a wide range of severity.
      • CMV can cause a syndrome that is similar to infectious mononucleosis but lacks severe pharyngitis.
      • CMV can cause pneumonia and inflammation of the retina (CMV retinitis) and esophagus in the immunosuppressed, especially in transplant recipients. Associated with a CD4 count < 50.
      • A severe systemic disease can develop in neonates. It is one of the TORCHES infections and can cause hearing loss, seizures, and petechial rash in newborns.
      • Visualization of owl’s eye inclusions in a cell is highly specific for cytomegalovirus.
      • Ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir are effective against CMV.
    2. Epstein-Barr virus infections (ReelDx + Lecture)

      Epstein Barr mononucleosis is a viral illness characterized by a classic triad of fever + lymphadenopathy + pharyngitis.
      • Diagnosed with positive heterophile antibody screen (Monospot) - may not appear early in the illness (positive within 4 weeks).
      • Atypical lymphocytes with enlarged nuclei and prominent nucleoli.
      • Maculopapular rash develops in 80% of patients treated with ampicillin
      • Left upper quadrant pain secondary to splenomegaly and are at risk for splenic rupture - athletes should avoid vigorous sports for at least the first three to four weeks of the illness.
      • Treatment is supportive.
    3. Herpes simplex (ReelDx)

      • HSV 1 - Oral lesions commonly called cold sores (tongue, lips etc.)
      • HSV 2 - Genital lesions (vulva, vagina, cervix, glans, prepuce, and penile shaft)
      • HHV 3 - VZV (Varicella Zoster Virus commonly known as chickenpox or shingles)
      • HHV 4 - EBV (Ebstein Barr Virus is commonly known as infectious mononucleosis [mono or glandular fever])
      • HHV 5 - CMV (Cytomegolo Virus is the most common virus transmitted to a pregnant woman's unborn child)
      • HHV 6 - Roseolovirus is more commonly known as the 6th disease or Roseola Infantum
      • HHV 7 - Similar to HHV6 (not yet classified)
      • HHV 8 - A type of rhadinovirus known as the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)
    4. HIV infection (ReelDx)

      • All CD4 counts
        • Tuberculosis: Tuberculin skin testing. Therapy for latent infection should be administered to those who test positive and are without evidence of active disease.
      • CD4 counts ≤250 cells/microL
        • Coccidioidomycosis: Perform annual IgG and IgM serologic screening and - fluconazole therapy to such patients if they have a newly positive serologic test.
      • CD4 counts ≤200 cells/microL
        • Pneumocystis: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)
      • CD4 counts ≤150 cells/microL
        • Histoplasmosis: In general, do not administer antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole.
      • CD4 counts ≤100 cells/microL
        • Toxoplasma: Administer suppressive therapy with TMP-SMX to prevent reactivation of T. gondii in patients with a CD4 count ≤100 cells/microL and a positive toxoplasmosis IgG serology.
        • Cryptococcus: Preventive therapy for cryptococcal disease is generally not recommended because of drug interactions, adverse effects, the potential for antifungal drug resistance, cost, and the lack of overall survival benefit.
      • CD4 counts ≤50 cells/microL
        • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): For patients who are initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), do not routinely administer antimicrobial prophylaxis .
    5. Human papillomavirus infections (ReelDx + Lecture)

      • Cutaneous warts: serotypes 12, and 4 - hands, fingers, and soles of feet.
      • Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata): serotypes 6 and 11 - koilocytes (epithelial cells with structural changes characteristic of HPV infection).
      • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: serotypes 16, 18, 31, and 33 - are preneoplastic. Can progress to squamous cell carcinoma or spontaneously resolve.
      • Koilocytic squamous epithelial cells in clumps are found on a Pap smear and are typical of cervical warts.
      • A vaccine against HPV types 6 and 11 (genital warts) and 16 and 18 (cervical cancer) is available - recommended for males and females age 11 to 12 years and is approved for ages 9 thru 26.
    6. Influenza (ReelDx)

      Fevers, chills, coryza, and myalgias.
      • Rapid antigen test can be performed in the clinic.
      • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) - (treats A and B) give before 48 hours.
        • Amantadine and rimantadine (adamantanes) Adamantanes = Influenza A.
      • Therapy is supportive - acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen and OTC cold medications.
      • Do not take ASPIRIN - can result in Reyes disease leading to hepatorenal failure and death.
      • Annual vaccine recommended for everyone ≥ 6 mo unless contraindicated.
    7. Rubeola (Measles + Lecture)

      Measles is caused by a paramyxovirus and is transmitted by respiratory droplets, it has a 10-12 day incubation period. It progresses in three phases characterized by a prodrome, enanthem, and exanthem.
      • Prodrome: 1-3 days of a "the three C's" - cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, as well as fever.
      • Enanthem (48 hours prior to exanthem) Koplik spots - are pathognomonic for measles and present as small red spots with a blue-white center on the buccal mucosa.
      • Exanthem (2-4 days after onset of fever): consists of a morbilliform, brick red erythematous, maculopapular, blanching rash, which classically begins on the face and spreads cephalocaudally and centrifugally to involve the neck, upper trunk, lower trunk, and extremities.
      • Treatment is supportive with anti-inflammatories.
    8. Mumps (Lecture)

      Caused by the paramyxovirus and causes painful parotid gland swelling along with low-grade fever, myalgias, and headache.
      • Orchitis in males - mumps causes unilateral, orchitis in males.
      • Mumps is the most common cause of pancreatitis in children.
      • MMR vaccine is given at 12-15 months then again at 4-6 years of age.
    9. Rabies (Lecture)

      Caused by a ribonucleic acid (RNA) rhabdovirus affecting mammals, including humans.
      • Transmission via dogs, raccoons, skunks, bats, fox, coyote.
      • Hydrophobia (inability to swallow water) is a classic symptom. Pharyngeal spasms, aerophobia (fear of drafts of fresh air) and hyperactivity.
      • Negri bodies (eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells) are considered pathognomonic and are found in the brain of dead animals.
      • Post-exposure treatment: Rabies immunoglobulin + inactivated vaccine (4 doses over 14 days)
      • Fatal when there are neurological symptoms.
    10. Roseola (Lecture)

      Also known as exanthema subitum, caused by Herpesvirus 6 or 7 - only childhood exanthem that starts on the trunk and spreads to the face. 
    11. Rubella (German Measles + Lecture)

      Rubella can present with low-grade fever and tender postauricular lymphadenopathy
      •  Following this is a diffuse, light pink maculopapular rash that first appears on the face and then spreads to the trunk and extremities within 24 hours.
      • The rash usually lasts about three days, hence the name three-day measles.
      • In pregnancy, rubella is a TORCH infection and can cause serious complications, including hearing loss, ocular and cardiovascular defects, and mental retardation (congenital rubella)
      • The mainstay of treatment is supportive care and prevention with vaccines - MMR (live attenuated) at 12-15 months then again at 4-6 years of age
    12. Varicella (chicken pox): primary infections - clusters of vesicles on an erythematous base.
      • Dew drops on a rose petal in different stages.
      • Starts on the face and spreads down.
      • Acutely causes chickenpox - becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion.
      • Symptomatic treatment may use acyclovir in special populations.
      Herpes zoster (shingles): varicella reactivation causing maculopapular rash along one dermatome.
      • Identified via tzanck smear with visualization of multinucleated giant cells.
      • Zoster Opthalmicus: shingles involving CCN V, dendritic lesions on slit lamp exam if keratoconjunctivitis is present.
      • Zoster Oticus (Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome): facial nerve (CN VIII) otalgia, lesions on the ear, auditory canal and TM, facial palsy auditory symptoms.
      • Treat shingles with acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir - given within 72 hours to prevent post-herpetic neuralgia.
      • Postherpetic Neuralgia: pain > 3 months, paresthesias or decreased sensation. Treat with gabapentin or TCA, topical lidocaine gel, and capsaicin.
      • Herpes zoster vaccine is a live, attenuated virus vaccine - vaccination is recommended for immunocompetent adults > 60 years of age.


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