PANCE Blueprint Pulmonary (10%)

PANCE Blueprint Pulmonary (10%)

PANCE Blueprint Pulmonary (10%)

Follow along with the NCCPA™ PANCE and PANRE Pulmonology Content Blueprint


  1. Pulmonary 149 Question Comprehensive Exam (Members Only)

    Comprehensive PANCE/PANRE Pulmonary System Blueprint Exam
  2. Smarty PANCE Pulmonology Flashcards and Cheat Sheet

    Flashcards covering all Pulmonology PANCE/PANRE NCCPA Content Blueprint topics. Download and print the flashcard cheat sheet and access our premium Quizlet flashcard sets.
    1. Additional Pulmonology Flashcards

  3. Pulmonology PANCE and PANRE Content Blueprint Cram Session

    1. Defined as a chronic cough that is productive of phlegm occurring on most days for 3 months of the year for 2 or more consecutive years without an otherwise-defined acute cause
      • Chronic Bronchitis = Blue Bloaters (2º to chronic hypoxia)
      • Common in Smokers (80% of COPD patients)
      • Physical exam: Rales, rhonchi
      • Chest radiograph: peribronchial and perivascular markings
        • ↑ HGB and HCT common because of chronic hypoxic state
        • ↑ pulmonary HTN with RVH, distended neck veins, hepatomegaly
      • Short acting bronchodilators for mild disease, long acting bronchodilators +/- inhaled corticosteroids for moderate to severe disease, Ipratropium bromide is inhaler of choice for COPD
        • Smoking cessation and supplemental O2 (O2 is single most important medication in long term)
        • Antibiotics for acute exacerbations
      • Flu and pneumococcal vaccines are a must
    2. Emphysema is a condition in which air spaces are enlarged as a consequence of destruction of alveolar septae
      • The body's natural response to ↓ lung function is chronic hyperventilation = Pink Puffers! CO2 Retainers - the body must increase ventilation to blow off CO2
      • Minimal cough (compared to chronic bronchitis), quite lungs, thin, barrel chest
      • CXR reveals loss of lung markings and hyperinflation - Parenchymal bullae and blebs are pathognomonic
      • Normal hematocrit (HCT)
      • Management is the same as Chronic Bronchitis
  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis - transmitted by respiratory droplets
    • Classic findings include fever, night sweats, anorexia, and weight loss
    • PPD Rules: Area of induration = raised area (not the red area)
      • < 5 mm in HIV
      • < 10 mm in high-risk areas (healthcare worker or possible known exposure)
      • < 15 mm for non-exposed
    • Diagnose TB with sputum for AFB smears and cultures
    If PPD/IGRA is POSITIVE, order a CXR PPD positive or IGRA + CXR negative = Latent TBCDC recommends short-course, rifamycin-based, 3- or 4-month latent TB infection treatment regimens over 6- or 9-month isoniazid monotherapy
      • Three months of once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine (3HP)
      • Four months of daily rifampin (4R)
      • Three months of daily isoniazid plus rifampin (3HR)
    PPD positive or IGRA + CXR positive = Active TB ⇒ Several treatment regimens are recommended in the United States for active TB disease. TB treatment can take 4, 6, or 9 months depending on the regimen.
      • 4-month Rifapentinemoxifloxacin TB treatment regimen
        • High-dose daily rifapentine (RPT) with
        • Moxifloxacin (MOX): QT-prolonging agent and has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias, which may be fatal
        • Isoniazid (INH) and
        • Pyrazinamide (PZA)
      • 6- or 9-month quad therapy (RIPE) TB treatment regimen:
        • Rifampin (RIF): Orange body fluids, hepatitis - "remember R = red/orange body fluids"
        • Isoniazid (INH): peripheral neuropathy (given with B6 - pyridoxine 25 to 50 mg/day)
        • Pyrazinamide (PZA): Hyperuricemia (Gout)
        • Ethambutol (EMB): Optic neuritis, red-green blindness - "remember E = eyes"
    All are hepatotoxic, so you need to get baseline labs
    • Patients with active TB will need two negative AFB smears and cultures in a row for therapy cessation
    • D/C therapy if transaminases > 3-5 × ULN
    • Pts on INH should take supplemental Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine 25-50mg/day) to prevent neuropathy
    • Monitor serum creatinine; take meds on an empty stomach since food can reduce absorption, watch for hepatotoxicity, be aware of drug interactions, especially with HIV meds
    1. RSV first episode of wheezing in infants, young children, tachypnea, respiratory distress. Diagnosed with nasal washing for RSV culture and antigen assay. Humidified 02, antipyretics, beta agonists, nebulized racemic epinephrine, corticosteroids if h/o underlying reactive airway disease. Ribavirin if severe lung or heart disease and in immunocompromised patients
    2. Cough which persists for more than five days, 95% are viral, usually viral, in chronic lung patients consider H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, normal vital signs, no rales, no egophony
    3. Caused by Hib, unvaccinated child, Thumbprint sign on X-Ray treat with Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
    4. Caused by Parainfluenza virus in the winter months, patients < 3 years old, Barking cough, stridor at night, AP radiograph shows Steeple sign” Treatment is supportive (air humidifier), if severe IV fluids and racemic epinephrine
    5. Empyema

      Empyema is the collection of pus in the pleural space, usually resulting from pneumonia, surgery, or trauma
      • Fever, pleuritic chest pain, and dyspnea
      • Decreased breath sounds and dullness to percussion over the affected area
      • Cough with possible purulent sputum
      • Diagnosed with chest X-ray showing pleural effusion; CT scan provides better detail and helps guide drainage
      • Thoracentesis confirms diagnosis by obtaining pleural fluid analysis showing low pH, low glucose, and high LDH
      • Common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes
      • Treated with antibiotics and drainage via chest tube or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS); intrapleural fibrinolytics may be used to break down loculations
    6. Fevers, chills, coryza, myalgia diagnose with rapid antigen test can be performed in clinic Zanamivir and Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) treat influenza A and B must be given within 48 hours. Amantadine and Rimantadine treat only influenza A. Annual vaccine for everyone 6 months and older unless contraindicated
    7. Bordetella pertussis (gram negative capsule), patients < 2 years old, high-pitched "inspiratory whoop", diagnose by nasopharyngeal swab, treat with Macrolide. Children should get 5 doses of DTaP vaccine (2m, 4m, 6m, 15-18m, 4-6y), Tdap booster at 11-12 y/o, DTaP
      • One dose of Tdap is also recommended for adults 19 years of age and older who did not get Tdap as an adolescent
      • Expectant mothers should receive Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably at 27 through 36 weeks
      1. Patients will present with fever, dyspnea, tachycardia, tachypnea, cough +/- sputum
        • S. Pneumoniae: Rust colored sputum, common in patients with splenectomy
        • S. Aureus: Salmon colored sputum, lobar, after influenza, MRSA treat with vancomycin
        • Pseudomonas: Ventilators, Cystic fibrosis, patients become sick fast - treat with 2 antibiotics
        • Legionella: Air conditioning, aerosolized water, low NA+ (hyponatremia), GI symptoms (diarrhea) and high fever
        • Mycoplasma: Young people living in dorms, (+) cold agglutinins, bullous myringitis, walking pneumonia, low temp
        • Klebsiella: Alcohol abuse, currant jelly sputum, aspiration
        • Haemophilus influenzae: COPD, smokers, postsplenectomy
        • Chlamydia pneumoniae: College kids, sore throat, long prodrome
        • Poor dental hygiene is associated with pneumonia caused by anaerobes
        • The indolent course suggests an atypical pneumonia and Mycoplasma is the most common atypical agent
        • Lobar consolidation is seen in community-acquired pneumonia
        • Apical infiltration is seen in tuberculosis
        • Histoplasma capsulatum: Bird or bat droppings (caves, zoo, bird), Mississippi or Ohio river valley causes mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (looks like sarcoidosis)
        • Coccidioides (valley fever): Caused by fungal inhalation in western states. Look for this in a patient with non-remitting cough/bronchitis non-responsive to conventional treatments.
        • Cryptococcus: Immunocompromised patients usually symptomatic, found in soil can disseminate and can cause meningitis
      2. Pneumocystis jiroveci HIV CD4 < 200, immunosuppressed, CXR is the cornerstone of diagnosis.  The radiograph shows diffuse interstitial or bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Prophylaxis for high risk patients with a CD4 count of less than 200 or with a history of PJP infection.
        • Influenza pneumonia: Most common in adults, characterized by a more precipitous onset and fulminant course
        • Adenovirus: Tends to cause symptoms fast, will present with GI symptoms and lasts about 1 week. May differentiate from bacterial mycoplasma pneumonia as mycoplasma is slow and insidious.
        • RSVChildren <1 year old
        • Parainfluenza: Children 2-5 years old
    8. Infants, young children, tachypnea, respiratory distress, wheezing. Diagnosed by nasal washing. Supportive measures include, albuterol via nebulizer, antipyretics and humidified oxygen admit if O2 sat < 95% and/or retractions
    9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis - transmitted by respiratory droplets.
      • Classic findings include fever, night sweats, anorexia and weight loss.
      • PPD Rules: Area of induration = raised area (not the red area).
        • < 5 mm in HIV.
        • < 10 mm in high-risk area (healthcare worker or possible known exposure).
        • < 15 mm for non exposed.
      • Diagnose TB with sputum for AFB smears and cultures.
      • Latent TB - treat with Isoniazid for 9 months.
      • Active treatment: quad therapy (RIPE): Four drugs x 8 weeks then two drugs x 16 weeks. All are Hepatotoxic so you need to get baseline labs.
        • Rifampin (RIF): Orange body fluids, hepatitis - "remember R = red/orange body fluids."
        • Isoniazid (INH): peripheral neuropathy (give with B6- pyridoxine 25 to 50 mg/day).
        • Pyrazinamide (PZA): Hyperuricemia (Gout).
        • Ethambutol (EMB): Optic neuritis, red-green blindness - "remember E = eyes."
      • Patients with active TB will need two negative AFB smears and cultures in a row negative for therapy cessation.
      • Prophylaxis for household members: Isoniazid for 1 year.
    1. Carcinoid tumors are a GI tract cancer that has metastasized to the lungs. Most common type Adenoma - slow growing, rare metastasis
      • Presents with haemoptysis, cough, focal wheezing or recurrent pneumonia, carcinoid syndrome - cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, wheezing and low blood pressure (hallmark sign)
      • Chest X Ray shows low grade CA seen as pedunculated sessile growth in the central bronchi
    2. Lung cancer (Lecture + ReelDx)

      Small Cell (15% of cases) (central mass) - 99% smokers, does not respond to surgery and mets at presentation
      • Location: Central, very aggressive
      Non Small Cell  (85 percent of lung cancer cases)
      • Squamous cell (central mass) with hemoptysis, 25-35% of lung cancer cases
        • Location: central
        • May cause hemoptysis
        • Paraneoplastic syndrome: hypercalcemia
        • Elevated PTHrp
      • Large cell - fast doubling rates - responds to surgery rare (only 5%)
        • Location: Periphery 60%
        • Paraneoplastic syndrome: Gynecomastia
      • Adenocarcinoma - most common (peripheral mass), 35-40% of cases of lung cancer
        • Most common
        • Associated with smoking and asbestos exposure
        • Location: Periphery
        • Paraneoplastic syndrome: Thrombophlebitis
      Associated manifestations:
      • Superior vena cava syndrome (facial/arm edema and swollen chest wall veins)
      • Pancoast tumor (shoulder pain, Horner’s syndrome, brachial plexus compression)
      • Horner’s syndrome (unilateral miosis, ptosis and anhidrosis)
      • Carcinoid syndrome (flushing, diarrhea and telangiectasia)
    3. < 3 cm is a nodule (coin lesion) > 3 cm the lesion is considered  a "mass"
      • Incidental finding on CXR →
      • Send for CT →
      • If suspicious (depending on radiographic findings below) will need biopsy
        • Ill defined, lobular or spiculated suggests cancer
      • If not suspicious < 1 cm it should be monitored at 3 mo, 6 mo, and then yearly for 2 yr
        • Calcification, smooth well-defined edges, suggests benign disease
    1. Pleural Effusion is the accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural space.
      • Dullness to percussion, decreased breath sounds, and reduced tactile fremitus over the affected area
      • Dyspnea, chest pain, and cough are common symptoms
      • Classified as transudative (due to systemic factors like heart failure, cirrhosis) or exudative (due to local factors like infection, malignancy)
      • Diagnosed with lateral decubitus chest X-ray and upright films (blunting of costophrenic angles), ultrasound, and CT scan for detailed imaging
      • Thoracentesis is performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, with analysis of pleural fluid (e.g., protein, LDH, cell count, pH, glucose) to differentiate between transudative and exudative effusions
      • Light’s criteria help distinguish between transudative and exudative effusions
      • Treatment involves addressing the underlying cause (e.g., diuretics for heart failure, antibiotics for infection) and may include thoracentesis, chest tube placement, or pleurodesis for recurrent effusions
    2. Spontaneous:
      • Population: Tall thin males 10-30 years old
      • Treatment: If > 15%, chest tube insertion with serial radiographs every 24 hours until resolved
      • Etiology: Penetrating injury
      • Physical exam: Hyperresonance to percussion and tracheal shift to contralateral side
      • Treatment: Large bore needle decompression 2nd intercostals space midclavicular line
    1. A 65-year-old man who presents with a chronic productive cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. Examination reveals cyanosis, distended neck veins, and a prominent epigastric pulsation
      • Cor pulmonale is right ventricular enlargement and eventually failure secondary to a lung disorder that causes pulmonary artery hypertension
      • Lung disorders such as PE, vasculitis, ARDS, COPD (most common), Asthma, and ILD causes pulmonary artery hypertension.
      • Findings include peripheral edema, neck vein distention, hepatomegaly, and a parasternal lift
    2. Pulmonary embolism (ReelDx)

      A patient recovering from a recent surgery presents with sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, apprehension, cough, hemoptysis, and diaphoresis. The cardiac monitor demonstrates a regular rhythm with a rate of 120 bpm. Upon auscultation you notice tachypnea and crackles Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulable state, venous stasis, vascular injury
      • Risk factors: Cancer, surgery, oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy, long bone fracture (fat emboli)
      • Homan’s sign: (Dorsiflexion of foot causes pain in calf) indicative of deep vein thrombosis
      • EKG: Tachycardia (most common), ST changes, S1Q3T3 (Indicates cor pulmonale)
      • Spiral CT: Best initial test
      • Gold Standard is Pulmonary Arteriography
      • Chest radiograph: Westermark's sign and Hampton's Hump (triangular infiltrate secondary to intraparenchymal hemorrhage)
      • Treatment: Heparin to Coumadin bridge, 3-6 mo treatment target INR of 2.5 (INR range, 2.0-3.0)
    3. Pulmonary hypertension is usually caused by an underlying disorder such as constrictive pericarditis, mitral stenosis, LV failure, mediastinal disease compressing the pulmonary veins
      • Pt will present with a history history of underlying disorder (such as COPD) with worsening dyspnea, especially at rest and retrosternal chest pain. On examination, she has persistent widened splitting of S2, loud P2, systolic ejection click, and parasternal lift
      • Pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg - diagnose with right heart catheterization
    1. Chronic progressive lung disorder characterized by increasing scarring, which ultimately reduces the capacity of the lungs; etiology unknown
      • The most common of all interstitial lung diseases
      • In order to be considered "idiopathic", you must be sure to rule out other common causes such as drugs, and environmental or occupational exposures
      • CT chest: diffuse patchy fibrosis with pleural based honeycombing
      • PFTs will demonstrate a restrictive pattern - opposite of what you would see with asthma
      • Decreased lung volume with a normal to increased FEV1/FVC ratio
    2. Pneumoconiosis

      • Asbestosis: ship building, demolition, construction, chest x-ray findings of interstitial fibrosis and pleural thickening, mesothelioma
      • Silicosis: Mining, sandblasting, stone or quarry work, nodular opacities at upper lung fields, "eggshell" calcification of hilar lymph nodes
      • Berylliosis: High-tech fields, nuclear power, ceramics, foundries, diffuse infiltrates and hilar adenopathy
      • Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis: coal miners, CXR demonstrates nodular opacities
      • Pulmonary manifestations (most common), erythema nodosum, parotid gland enlargement
      • Chest radiograph: Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy seen on chest radiograph is the hallmark finding in 90% of cases
      • Biopsy: non-caseating granulomas and ↑ ACE levels
      • Treatment: 90% of cases are responsive to steroids and can be controlled with a maintenance note
    1. Rapid onset of profound dyspnea occurring 12-24 hours after the precipitating event. Physical exam will show tachypnea, frothy pink or red sputum and diffuse crackles
      • Chest radiograph: air bronchograms and bilaterally fluffy infiltrate
      • Treat with tracheal intubation with lowest level of PEEP
    2. Asthma (ReelDx)

      Greater than 12% increase in FEV1 after bronchodilator therapy monitor with peak flow meter
      • FEV1 to FVC ratio < 80%
        • Forced expiratory volume (FEV) measures how much air a person can exhale during a forced breath.
        • The amount of air exhaled may be measured during the first (FEV1)
        • Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the total amount of air exhaled during the FEV test
      • Mild Intermittent: Less than 2 times per week or 3 night symptoms per month
        • Step 1: Short acting beta2 agonist (SABA) PRN
      • Mild Persistent: More than 2 times per week or 3-4 night symptoms per month
        • Step 2: Low-Dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) daily
      • Moderate Persistent: Daily symptoms or more than 1 nightly episode per week
        • Step 3: Low-Dose ICS + Long acting beta2 agonist (LABA) daily
        • Step 4: Medium-Dose ICS +LABA daily
      • Severe Persistent: Symptoms several times per day and nightly
        • Step 5: High-Dose ICS +LABA daily
        • Step 6: High-Dose ICS +LABA +oral steroids daily
    3. Young patient with a history of chronic lung disease, pancreatitis or infertility
      • Autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene
      • Recurrent respiratory infections (especially Pseudomonas)
      • CXR may reveal hyperinflation, mucus plugging and focal atelectasis
      • Labs will reveal an elevated quantitative sweat chloride test (gold standard)
      • Chest physiotherapy, high fat diet, supplement fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K), antibiotics for acute exacerbations
    4. Presentation (depends on location of obstruction)
      • Inspiratory stridor if high in the airway
      • Wheezing and decreased breath sounds if low in the airway
      • 80% in mainstem or lobar bronchus, 20% in upper airway, right > left
      • Treatment: Remove foreign body with bronchoscope
    5. Affects premature infants. It occurs when infants are born before the lungs are producing adequate amounts of surfactant. Surfactant helps to prevent the lungs from collapsing.  As the airways collapse, infants will struggle more and more to breath until they become acidotic and multisystem organ failure begins
      • CXR will demonstrate diffuse bilateral atelectasis causing a "ground glass appearance" and air bronchograms
      • Antenatal corticosteroids to mother and exogenous surfactant as both treatment and prophylaxis
    6. Foul breath, purulent sputum, hemoptysis and chronic cough along with a CXR demonstrating dilated and thickened airways with "tram tracks" and “plate-like” atelectasis (scarring)
      • ½ of cases are due to cystic fibrosis
      • Gold standard diagnosis is – CT of the chest
      • Ambulatory oxygen, aggressive antibiotics, CPT (chest physiotherapy = bang on the back) and eventually lung transplant