Podcast Episode 103: Ten PANRE & PANRE-LA Intervention Complex Practice Questions

Podcast Episode 103: Ten PANRE & PANRE-LA Intervention Complex Practice Questions

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Podcast Episode 103 Ten PANRE & PANRE-LA Intervention Complex Practice QuestionsWelcome to episode 103 of the Audio PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant/Associate Board Review Podcast.

Join me today as we cover ten NCCPA-style board review questions for your PANRE and PANRE-LA exams.

Special from today's episode:

I hope you enjoy this free audio component of the examination portion of this site. Smarty PANCE includes over 2,000 interactive board review questions, along with flashcards, ReelDx cases, integrated Picmonics, and lessons covering every blueprint topic available to all Smarty PANCE members.

Here is an interactive exam to complement today's podcast

1. A 65-year-old man presents to your office with complaints of constipation for the past six months. He says that he has difficulty passing stools, which are hard and dry. He also reports occasional abdominal pain and bloating. He denies any weight loss, blood in stools, fever, or night sweats. His medical history is significant for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. His medications include metformin, lisinopril, and aspirin. He does not smoke or drink alcohol. On physical examination, his vital signs are normal. His abdomen is soft and nontender, with normal bowel sounds. There are no masses or organomegaly palpable. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in evaluating this patient?

A) Colonoscopy
B) Barium enema
C) Thyroid function tests
D) Stool osmolarity
E) Dietary modification

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is A) Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is a procedure that involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the colon to visualize the mucosa and detect any abnormalities such as polyps, tumors, inflammation, or bleeding. It is indicated for patients with chronic constipation who are older than 50 years or have any red flag features for colorectal malignancy, such as weight loss, blood in stools, anemia, or a family history of colon cancer. This patient meets the age criterion and should undergo colonoscopy to rule out any serious causes of his constipation.

Answer explanations:

  • Barium enema is an imaging test that involves injecting a contrast agent (barium sulfate) into the rectum and taking X-rays of the colon. It can show structural abnormalities such as diverticula, strictures, masses, or volvulus. However, it is less sensitive and specific than colonoscopy for detecting colorectal malignancy. Therefore, it is not the preferred test for this patient.
  • Thyroid function tests are blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). They can help diagnose thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism can cause constipation due to decreased gastrointestinal motility. However, this patient has no other signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism such as fatigue, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, or bradycardia. Therefore, thyroid function tests are not necessary for this patient.
  • Stool osmolarity is a test that measures the concentration of solutes in stool water. It can help differentiate between osmotic diarrhea (high stool osmolarity) and secretory diarrhea (low stool osmolarity). However, this test is not useful for evaluating constipation which is defined by infrequent or difficult defecation.
  • Dietary modification is a nonpharmacological measure that involves increasing fiber and fluid intake to improve stool consistency and frequency. It may be effective for patients with primary constipation which has no identifiable organic cause. However, this patient has chronic constipation which requires further evaluation before initiating treatment.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Constipation)

View PANRE blueprint lesson

2. A 60-year-old male presents to the emergency department with chest pain and shortness of breath. ECG reveals ST segment elevation in the anterior leads. Which of the following laboratory tests is the most specific for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)?

A) Troponin
B) Creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB)
C) Myoglobin
D) C-reactive protein (CRP)
E) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is A) Troponin

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Cardiac biomarkers such as troponin, creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and myoglobin are commonly used to diagnose AMI. Among these biomarkers, troponin is the most specific for the diagnosis of AMI. Troponin is a protein found in cardiac muscle cells, and its release into the bloodstream is a specific marker of myocardial injury. Elevated troponin levels are typically seen within 3-4 hours after the onset of symptoms and can remain elevated for up to 10-14 days after an AMI.

Incorrect answer explanations:

  • Creatinine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in various tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle. CK-MB is a specific isoform of CK found predominantly in cardiac muscle cells. Elevated levels of CK-MB can be seen in the early stages of AMI, but CK-MB is less specific for the diagnosis of AMI compared to troponin.
  • Myoglobin is a protein found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Elevated myoglobin levels can be seen within 1-3 hours after the onset of symptoms, but myoglobin is less specific for the diagnosis of AMI compared to troponin. Elevated myoglobin levels can also be seen in other conditions that cause muscle injury, such as rhabdomyolysis.
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein that is elevated in response to tissue injury, inflammation, and infection. While elevated CRP levels can be seen in patients with AMI, CRP is not specific for the diagnosis of AMI and cannot be used as a diagnostic tool on its own.
  • Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone released by the heart in response to increased pressure and volume in the cardiac chambers. Elevated BNP levels can be seen in patients with heart failure and other cardiac conditions, but BNP is not specific for the diagnosis of AMI.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Acute myocardial infarction: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI))

View blueprint lesson

3. A 65-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and obesity presents to the emergency department with acute onset of severe left leg pain and swelling. She has been taking warfarin for anticoagulation but admits to missing some doses in the past week. Her blood pressure is 180/100 mmHg, pulse is 110 beats/min and irregular, and respiratory rate is 20 breaths/min. Her physical examination reveals a warm, tender, erythematous left lower extremity with prominent superficial veins and a positive Homan’s sign. Her international normalized ratio (INR) is 1.5. What is the most appropriate next step in the management of this patient?

A) Start heparin infusion and adjust warfarin dose
B) Order duplex ultrasonography of the lower extremities
C) Administer tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
D) Perform venography of the left leg
E) Apply compression stockings and elevate the leg

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is B) Order duplex ultrasonography of the lower extremities

Duplex ultrasonography is a non-invasive test that uses sound waves to visualize the blood flow in the veins of the legs. It can detect thrombi by measuring the diameter, compressibility, and flow characteristics of the veins. It has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DVT. It is considered the first-line diagnostic test for patients with suspected DVT. If negative, it can be repeated in one week or combined with D-dimer testing to rule out DVT.

Incorrect answer explanations:

  • Heparin infusion and warfarin dose adjustment are indicated for patients with confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who have subtherapeutic INR levels. However, this patient has not yet been diagnosed with DVT and needs further diagnostic testing before initiating anticoagulation therapy.
  • tPA is a thrombolytic agent that dissolves blood clots by activating plasminogen into plasmin. Plasmin degrades fibrin, which forms the meshwork of clots. tPA may be used for patients with massive or life-threatening DVT who have contraindications to anticoagulation or who have failed anticoagulation therapy. However, it carries a high risk of bleeding complications and should not be used without confirming DVT diagnosis first.
  • Venography is an invasive procedure that involves injecting contrast dye into a vein and taking X-ray images to visualize any obstruction or narrowing in the venous system. It was once considered the gold standard for diagnosing DVT but has been largely replaced by duplex ultrasonography due to its higher cost, invasiveness, discomfort, and risk of allergic reactions or nephrotoxicity from contrast dye.
  • Compression stockings are elastic garments that apply graduated pressure on the legs to improve venous return and prevent edema formation. They may be used as an adjunctive treatment for patients with confirmed DVT, along with anticoagulation therapy. Elevation of the leg can also reduce swelling and pain by decreasing hydrostatic pressure in the veins. However, these interventions do not address the underlying cause of DVT or prevent clot propagation or embolization. They should not be used as the sole therapy for suspected or confirmed DVT without diagnostic testing or anticoagulation therapy.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Deep venous thrombosis)

View blueprint lesson

4. A 7-year-old child presents with honey-colored crusting lesions on the face and extremities. The lesions started as small red papules that quickly progressed to vesicles and then ruptured, leaving behind a honey-colored crust. The child has no fever and is otherwise healthy. What is the most appropriate initial treatment for this condition?

A) Topical corticosteroids
B) Oral antihistamines
C) Oral doxycycline
D) Topical mupirocin
E) Oral acyclovir

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is D) Topical mupirocin

The presentation of honey-colored crusting lesions on the face and extremities in a child is consistent with impetigo, a bacterial skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The most appropriate initial treatment for impetigo is topical antibiotics such as mupirocin. This is because impetigo is a localized skin infection, and topical antibiotics can effectively treat it without the need for systemic antibiotics. The topical antibiotic is applied to the affected area 2-3 times per day for 5-7 days.

Incorrect answer explanations:

  • Topical corticosteroids are not appropriate for impetigo as they can exacerbate the infection by suppressing the immune response and promoting bacterial growth.
  • Oral antihistamines are used to treat allergic reactions and are not effective in treating bacterial skin infections such as impetigo.
  • Oral doxycycline can be used to treat impetigo, but it is not the initial treatment of choice. Oral antibiotics are reserved for cases of extensive or severe impetigo or for patients who cannot tolerate topical antibiotics.
  • Oral acyclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat viral skin infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is not effective in treating bacterial skin infections such as impetigo.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Impetigo)

View blueprint lesson

5. A 72-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atrial fibrillation presents to the emergency department with sudden onset of left-sided weakness and slurred speech. She was last seen normal 2 hours ago by her daughter. Her vital signs are: blood pressure 180/100 mmHg, pulse 110 beats/min irregularly irregular, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, temperature 36.5°C (97.7°F), and oxygen saturation 98% on room air. On physical examination, she has left facial droop, left hemiparesis (4/5 strength), and dysarthria. Her NIH Stroke Scale score is 8. A non-contrast head CT scan shows no evidence of hemorrhage. What is the most appropriate next step in management?

A) Administer intravenous alteplase
B) Administer intravenous heparin
C) Perform carotid endarterectomy
D) Perform mechanical thrombectomy
E) Start oral aspirin

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is A. Administer intravenous alteplase

The patient has a clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, which is caused by occlusion of a cerebral artery by a thrombus or embolus. The most important factor in determining the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is the time from symptom onset to presentation. If the patient presents within 4.5 hours of symptom onset and has no contraindications, intravenous alteplase (a tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) should be administered as soon as possible to dissolve the clot and restore blood flow to the ischemic brain tissue. Intravenous alteplase has been shown to improve functional outcomes and reduce disability after acute ischemic stroke. The patient meets the criteria for intravenous alteplase because she presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, has no evidence of hemorrhage on head CT scan, and has no other contraindications such as recent surgery, active bleeding, severe hypertension (>185/110 mmHg), or use of anticoagulants. The other answer choices are incorrect because they are not indicated or effective in this scenario.

Incorrect answer explanations:

  • Intravenous heparin administration is not recommended for acute ischemic stroke because it does not improve outcomes and may increase the risk of bleeding complications.
  • Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes plaque from the carotid artery to prevent recurrent strokes in patients with significant carotid stenosis (>70%) who are asymptomatic or have had a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke within the past 6 months. It is not indicated for patients with acute ischemic stroke who have not been stabilized medically.
  • Mechanical thrombectomy is an endovascular procedure that uses a catheter-based device to remove large vessel occlusions in patients with acute ischemic stroke who have a large penumbra (area of potentially salvageable brain tissue). It can be performed within 24 hours of symptom onset if intravenous alteplase is contraindicated or ineffective. However, it should not delay or replace intravenous alteplase if eligible.
  • Oral aspirin is recommended for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke after initial treatment with intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy. It can also be used as initial treatment for patients who present more than 24 hours after symptom onset or who have contraindications to intravenous alteplase. However, it should not be given within 24 hours of receiving intravenous alteplase because it may increase the risk of bleeding complications.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Stroke)

View blueprint lesson

6. A 65-year-old man with a history of hypertension and peptic ulcer disease presents to your clinic for a routine follow-up. He reports feeling well and has no complaints. His medications include lisinopril and omeprazole. His vital signs are normal. A complete blood count (CBC) shows:

  • Hemoglobin: 10 g/dL (normal: 13-17 g/dL)
  • Hematocrit: 30% (normal: 40-50%)
  • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV): 70 fL (normal: 80-100 fL)
  • Red cell distribution width (RDW): 18% (normal: 11-15%)
  • White blood cell count: 6 x 10^9/L (normal: 4-11 x 10^9/L)
  • Platelet count: 250 x 10^9/L (normal: 150-450 x 10^9/L)

What is the most likely cause of this patient’s anemia?

A) Chronic kidney disease
B) Folate deficiency
C) Gastrointestinal bleeding
D) Thalassemia trait
E) Vitamin B12 deficiency

Answer and topic summary

The answer is C. Gastrointestinal bleeding

The patient has a microcytic anemia, which is characterized by a low MCV (<80 fL). The most common cause of microcytic anemia is iron deficiency. Iron deficiency can result from inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased demand, or chronic blood loss. In this patient, the most likely source of chronic blood loss is gastrointestinal bleeding due to his history of peptic ulcer disease and the use of omeprazole. Omeprazole can mask the symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding by reducing acid secretion and healing ulcers but does not prevent recurrence or complications. The patient may also have occult blood loss that is not visible in the stool. The RDW is elevated (>15%), indicating increased variation in red blood cell size due to iron deficiency. To confirm iron deficiency, iron studies such as serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation should be ordered. The patient should also undergo endoscopy to evaluate for the source and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding and rule out malignancy. The other answer choices are incorrect because they are not causes of microcytic anemia but rather causes of normocytic or macrocytic anemia.

Incorrect answer explanations:

  • Chronic kidney disease can cause normocytic anemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidneys. The MCV would be normal (80-100 fL).
  • Folate deficiency can cause macrocytic anemia due to impaired DNA synthesis in red blood cell precursors. The MCV would be high (>100 fL).
  • Thalassemia trait can cause microcytic anemia due to reduced synthesis of alpha or beta globin chains that form hemoglobin. However, thalassemia trait usually has a normal or low RDW (<15%) because red blood cells are uniformly small. Thalassemia trait also has a genetic basis and is more common in people of Mediterranean, African, or Southeast Asian descent.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause macrocytic anemia due to impaired DNA synthesis in red blood cell precursors as well as neurological symptoms such as peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, dementia, or psychosis. The MCV would be high (>100 fL).

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Iron Deficiency Anemia)

View blueprint lesson

7. A 42-year-old woman with a history of GERD presents to your clinic for follow-up. She has been taking omeprazole 20 mg daily for the past 6 months and reports significant improvement in her heartburn and regurgitation symptoms. She has also made lifestyle modifications such as avoiding spicy and fatty foods, quitting smoking, and elevating the head of her bed. She asks you if she can stop taking omeprazole or reduce the dose. What is the most appropriate next step in management?

A) Continue omeprazole 20 mg daily indefinitely
B) Discontinue omeprazole and monitor symptoms
C) Switch to famotidine 20 mg twice daily
D) Taper omeprazole to every other day for 4 weeks
E) Perform an upper endoscopy

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is D) Taper omeprazole to every other day for 4 weeks


The patient has a history of GERD that has responded well to PPI therapy and lifestyle modifications. The goal of treatment is to achieve symptom relief and prevent complications such as esophagitis, stricture, Barrett’s esophagus, or adenocarcinoma. PPIs are more effective than H2 blockers or antacids for healing erosive esophagitis and maintaining remission. However, long-term use of PPIs may be associated with adverse effects such as increased risk of fractures, infections, hypomagnesemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is reasonable to attempt a step-down approach after achieving symptom control with PPIs for at least 8 weeks. This involves tapering the dose of PPI gradually over 2-4 weeks to avoid rebound acid hypersecretion. If symptoms recur after discontinuation of PPIs, then switching to an H2 blocker or restarting PPI maintenance therapy with the lowest effective dose may be indicated.

Incorrect answer choices:

  • Continuing omeprazole 20 mg daily may expose the patient to unnecessary risks of long-term PPI use without attempting a trial of dose reduction or discontinuation.
  • Discontinuing omeprazole and monitoring symptoms may cause rebound acid hypersecretion and recurrence of GERD symptoms due to abrupt withdrawal of PPI therapy.
  • Immediately switching to an H2 blocker (such as famotidine) may not provide adequate symptom control for GERD, as H2 blockers are less potent than PPIs in suppressing gastric acid secretion. Slowly taper off the PPI first over 2-4 weeks (the higher the dose, the longer the taper). If symptoms return, it would be appropriate to start again with an H2 blocker.  If long-term treatment is needed, H2 blockers allow better absorption of nutrients than PPIs and so potentially have fewer long-term adverse effects. If symptoms are still difficult to control, consider adding the PPI back at the lowest effective dose.
  • Perform an upper endoscopy: This option is not indicated for patients with uncomplicated GERD who have responded well to medical therapy. Endoscopy is reserved for patients who have alarm features such as dysphagia, odynophagia, weight loss, anemia,

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: GERD)

View blueprint lesson

8. Which of the following is an appropriate step-down therapy for a patient with well-controlled asthma on medium-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta agonists (LABA)?

A) Discontinue LABA and continue medium-dose ICS
B) Discontinue ICS and continue LABA
C) Reduce ICS dose by 50% and continue LABA
D) Reduce both ICS and LABA doses by 50%
E) Switch to low-dose ICS/formoterol as needed

Answer and topic summary

The answer is E. Switch to low-dose ICS/formoterol as needed

This patient has well-controlled asthma on medium-dose ICS and LABA, which corresponds to step 4 of the asthma treatment algorithm. Step-down therapy can be considered for patients with at least 3 months of continuous good control of asthma. The goal of step-down therapy is to reduce medication use to the lowest effective dose while maintaining asthma control. According to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), one option for stepping down from step 4 is to switch to low-dose ICS/formoterol as needed. This regimen involves using a combination inhaler containing low-dose ICS (budesonide) and formoterol (a fast-acting LABA) both as maintenance therapy and as reliever therapy instead of a short-acting beta agonist (SABA). This strategy has been shown to reduce exacerbations, improve symptom control, and decrease steroid exposure compared with conventional maintenance therapy with higher doses of ICS/LABA plus SABA as needed.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Asthma)

View blueprint lesson

9. A 35-year-old woman presents to her primary care provider with complaints of chronic worry and nervousness for the past 8 months. She says she worries about everything, such as her health, her family, her work, and her finances. She has difficulty sleeping, concentrating, and relaxing. She also experiences muscle tension, headaches, and palpitations. She denies any history of trauma, substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. She has no medical problems and takes no medications. Her vital signs are normal and her physical examination is unremarkable. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

A) Panic disorder
B) Obsessive-compulsive disorder
C) Post-traumatic stress disorder
D) Generalized anxiety disorder
E) Adjustment disorder

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is D) Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry about everyday things that lasts for at least 6 months. The worry causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. The anxiety is not attributable to any specific triggers or stressors. The diagnosis of GAD requires at least 3 of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.

  • Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks that cause fear of having another attack or avoidance of situations that might trigger an attack. Panic attacks are sudden episodes of intense fear or discomfort that peak within minutes and are accompanied by at least 4 physical or cognitive symptoms such as palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, derealization/depersonalization, fear of losing control or dying. The patient does not report having panic attacks.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions (intrusive thoughts or images that cause anxiety) and/or compulsions (repetitive behaviors or mental acts that aim to reduce anxiety). The patient does not report having obsessions or compulsions.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by exposure to a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, and subsequent re-experiencing, avoidance, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and increased arousal related to the event. The patient denies any history of trauma.
  • Adjustment disorder is characterized by emotional or behavioral symptoms that develop within 3 months of an identifiable psychosocial stressor and cause significant impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. The symptoms usually resolve within 6 months after the termination of the stressor unless it has chronic consequences. The patient’s anxiety is not related to any specific stressors and has lasted longer than 6 months.

(Review PANRE Blueprint Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder)

View blueprint lesson

10. A 65-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presents to the emergency department with altered mental status, polyuria, and polydipsia. He has been feeling unwell for the past week with a urinary tract infection that he has been self-treating with cranberry juice. His vital signs are: blood pressure 180/100 mmHg, heart rate 110 beats per minute, respiratory rate 24 breaths per minute, temperature 37.8°C (100°F), and oxygen saturation 95% on room air. His physical examination reveals dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor, and decreased level of consciousness. His laboratory tests show:

  • Serum glucose: 900 mg/dL
  • Serum sodium: 150 mEq/L
  • Serum potassium: 4.0 mEq/L
  • Serum bicarbonate: 18 mEq/L
  • Serum osmolality: 350 mOsm/kg
  • Urine ketones: negative

Which of the following is the most appropriate initial treatment?

A) Intravenous insulin infusion
B) Intravenous normal saline infusion
C) Intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion
D) Intravenous potassium chloride infusion
E) Subcutaneous insulin glargine injection

Answer and topic summary

The correct answer is B) Intravenous normal saline infusion

This patient has hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS), which is a complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by severe hyperglycemia (>600 mg/dL), hyperosmolality (>320 mOsm/kg), and dehydration in the absence of ketoacidosis. HHS is often triggered by an acute stressor such as infection, medication noncompliance, or excessive carbohydrate intake. The mainstay of treatment for HHS is fluid replacement with isotonic saline to correct dehydration, lower serum glucose and osmolality, and improve renal function. Insulin therapy can be initiated after adequate fluid resuscitation, usually at a low dose (0.05-0.1 units/kg/hour). Electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia or acidosis should be corrected as needed.

Incorrect answer explanations:

  • Insulin infusion is not the first-line treatment for HHS, as it can worsen dehydration, hypokalemia, and cerebral edema if given before adequate fluid replacement. Insulin should be started after fluid resuscitation at a low dose to avoid rapid drops in serum glucose and osmolality.
  • Sodium bicarbonate infusion is not indicated for HHS unless there is severe acidosis (pH <7.0). The patient’s serum bicarbonate level is mildly low (18 mEq/L), but not enough to warrant bicarbonate therapy. Moreover, sodium bicarbonate can increase serum osmolality and worsen cerebral edema.
  • Intravenous potassium chloride infusion is unnecessary for HHS unless there is hypokalemia (<3.5 mEq/L). The patient’s serum potassium level is normal (4.0 mEq/L), so potassium supplementation is not required. However, potassium levels should be monitored closely during fluid and insulin therapy, as they may drop rapidly due to intracellular shifts.
  • Insulin glargine injection is a long-acting insulin that provides basal coverage for up to 24 hours. It is not suitable for treating acute hyperglycemia in HHS, as it has a slow onset of action and cannot be titrated easily according to blood glucose levels. Moreover, subcutaneous insulin administration may be unreliable in patients with poor perfusion due to dehydration.

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