PANCE Blueprint Musculoskeletal (8%)

Soft tissue injuries of the shoulder (Lecture)

AC Joint Separation

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AC Joint Separation

Patient will present as → a 37-year-old right-hand dominant male fell off his bicycle four days ago and injured his left non-dominant shoulder. There is an abnormal contour of the left shoulder with an elevation of the clavicle, AC joint tenderness, and pain with cross chest testing. A radiograph is shown here. The axillary radiograph shows no anteroposterior translation.
An AC joint separation involves damage to the ligaments supporting the AC joint, either sprains or tears, commonly caused by a fall on the shoulder or outstretched hand. This can result in pain, shoulder deformity, and loss of forelimb mobility.ac-joint-seperation-types

  • Acromioclavicular separation is also referred to as a “separated shoulder”
  • Patients may have: elevation of the clavicle (step-off deformity) and point tenderness and pain with cross chest testing

DX: To appropriately grade acromioclavicular separations, an x-ray is taken with the patient holding a weight to assess the level of injury to the joint.

TX: Conservative management is possible for mild to moderate injuries because they can be managed with a sling and analgesia

  • More severe injuries usually will require operative repair
Cross Chest Test Video

References: Merck Manual · UpToDate

Biceps Tendonitis

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Biceps Tendonitis

Patient will present as → a 33-year-old man who complains of left anterior shoulder pain for 4 weeks. The pain is made worse with overhead activities. On examination, you note maximal pain in the shoulder with palpation between the greater and lesser tubercle. Pain in the shoulder is exacerbated when the arm is held at the side, elbow flexed to 90 degrees, and the patient is asked to supinate and flex the forearm against your resistance.
Biceps tendinitis is an inflammation or irritation of the upper biceps tendon. Also called the long head of the biceps tendon, this strong, cord-like structure connects the biceps muscle to the bone in the shoulder socket

  • The patient will present with → pain in the biceps groovebiceps-tendonitis
  • Anterior shoulder pain - may have pain radiating down the region of the biceps, symptoms may be similar in nature and location to the rotator cuff or subacromial impingement pain.
  • Pain with resisted supination of the elbow

DX: X-Ray to rule out a fracture

  • Ultrasound: can show thickened tendon within the bicipital groove
  • MRI: can show thickening and tenosynovitis of proximal biceps tendon - increased T2 signal around biceps tendon.
  • "Popeye" deformity - indicates a rupture

TX: Treat with NSAIDS, PT strengthening, and steroid injections

  • Surgical release is reserved for refractory cases for bicep pathology seen during arthroscopy

Special tests:

Speed test: Pain elicited in the bicipital groove when the patient attempts to forward elevate shoulder against examiner resistance while the elbow extended and forearm supinated. Positive if the pain is reproduced. May also be positive in patients with SLAP lesions.

Yergason’s test: Elbow flexed 90 degrees, wrist supination against resistance. Positive if the pain is reproduced.

Yergason’s Test Video Speed's Test Video

References: Merck Manual · UpToDate

Rotator cuff tendinopathy/tear

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Rotator cuff tendinopathy and tear

Patient will present as → a 69-year-old male with right shoulder pain for the past several months. He reports that he cannot reach above his head without severe pain. As a retired carpenter, he reports that this has significantly impacted his quality of life. Additionally, he is unable to lie on his left side at night due to shoulder pain. On physical exam, there is focal tenderness over the left anterolateral shoulder. Radiography reveals reduced space between the acromion and humeral head.
Patient will present with → shoulder pain with overhead activity or at night when lying on arm or weakness and immobility after acute injury.

  • Injury to one or more of the rotator cuff muscles, typically due to tear or tendinopathy, rotator cuff muscles, which are all innervated by C5 and C6, are the SITS
  • The supraspinatus muscle is most commonly injured
  • Risk factors: older age, smoking, repetitive overhead reaching
    • Acute avulsion injuries typically following a trauma
    • Chronic degenerative tears - repetitive overhead motions, tendon weakening due to degenerative changes, and chronic impingement
  • Shoulder pain is exacerbated by sleeping on the affected shoulderreaching overhead and limited function of the shoulder
  • Severe focal tenderness at the insertion of supraspinatus (anterolateral shoulder) and decreased active elevation with a normal passive range of motion

DX:  Radiography for all patients as initial imaging - loss of subacromial space, due to upward migration of humeral head

TX: Treat with physical therapy (for all patients), NSAIDs, steroid injections, and surgical repair for patients with complete tears or for those who fail 3-6 months of conservative management

There are 4 Muscles in the rotator cuff (SITS)rotator-cuff

  1. Supraspinatus
  2. Infraspinatus
  3. Teres minor
  4. Subscapularis

Supraspinatus tear or inflammation:

  • Empty can test: 90 degreeS abduct, 30 degreeS flex, rotate internally. Apply downward pressure.
  • Full can test: 90 degrees abduct, 30-degreeS flex, rotate externally. Apply downward pressure.
  • Arm drop: Arm passively abducted and actively adducted slowly.

Subscapularis tear or inflammation:

  • Lift off test: Elbow 90 degree, rotate medially against resistance.

Teres minor/infraspinatus tear or inflammation:

References: Merck Manual · UpToDate

Question 1
Which of the following rotator cuff tendons is most likely to sustain injury because of its repeated impingement (impingement syndrome) between the humeral head and the undersurface of the anterior third of the acromion and coracoacromial ligament?
A
Supraspinatus
B
Infraspinatus
Hint:
See A for explanation
C
Teres minor
Hint:
See A for explanation
D
Subscapularis
Hint:
See A for explanation
Question 1 Explanation: 
A critical zone exists for the supraspinatus tendon due to its superior insertion site. It is susceptible for injury because it has a reduction in its blood supply that occurs with abduction of the arm. Impingement of the shoulder is most commonly seen with the supraspinatus tendon, the long head of the biceps tendon and/or the subacromial bursa.
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osmosis Osmosis
Picmonic
Rotator Cuff

The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons which act to stabilize the shoulder. It is comprised of four muscles, the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis. External rotation is done with the teres minor and infraspinatus, while internal rotation is controlled by the subscapularis. Abduction of the arm occurs through flexion of the supraspinatus.

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Adhesive Capsulitis - AKA frozen shoulder

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Adhesive Capsulitis (frozen shoulder)

Patient will present as → a 50-year-old female with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus complaining of prolonged shoulder pain and stiffness for 6 months. For the past few months, she reports persistent left shoulder pain that also occurs at night. She denies history of traumatic injury. On physical exam, she has decreased active and passive range of motion. She is also unable to reach 90° with passive abduction. Resisted shoulder range of motion testing is pain-free and demonstrates no strength loss. She is sent home with range of motion exercises and counseled that this will likely resolve with time.
Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, is a painful condition in which the movement of the shoulder becomes limited. Frozen shoulder occurs when the strong connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint (called the shoulder joint capsule) become thick, stiff, and inflamed

  • Characterized by a severely limited range of motionFrozen Shoulder
  • Insidious onset of shoulder stiffness and pain at rest and with movement. Decreased active and passive range of motion
  • Often post fracture - looks like a rotator cuff injury
  • Apley scratch test: the patient tries to bring hands together on the back while one hand comes from above and the other from below. Positive test - restriction with movement. (watch video)

DX: MR arthrogram - loss of axillary recess indicates contracture of the joint capsule

TX: NSAIDs, physical therapy, and intra-articular steroid injections

  • Surgery if failure to respond to conservative treatments -  arthroscopic surgical release, manipulation under anesthesia (MUA).

References: UpToDate

Impingement

Shoulder impingement syndrome

Patient will present as → a 70-year-old male with an insidious onset of left shoulder pain that is exacerbated by overhead activities and while lifting objects away from his body. He is a retired mechanic of 35 years. The patient reports that over the last several months he has been having difficulty sleeping because of the pain. On physical examination, there is notable tenderness over the left anterolateral shoulder and passive forward flexion >90° causes severe pain. An x-ray reveals proximal migration of the humeral head and calcification of the coracoacromial ligament.
Subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) refers to the inflammation and irritation of the rotator cuff tendons as they pass through the subacromial space

  • Patients will present with  pain with reaching or lifting, and pain with overhead motions
  • Will have positive impingement tests: check the subscapular nerve and the supraspinatus
  • Crepitus with range of motion

DX: X-ray may show tendonc calcification or a subacromial spur

  • Ultrasound and MRI may be helpful if the diagnosis remains unclear or rotator cuff or labral tear is suspected

DX: Treatment involves rest, ice, activity modification, NSAIDs, and corticosteroid injections

  • Symptoms refractory to conservative treatment or if subscapularis tearing secondary to impingement - arthroscopic surgery is indicated.

watch video home exercises for impingement (click here)

References: UpToDate

Shoulder Bursitis

Subacromial Bursitis

Patient will present as → a 42-year-old man with complaints of right shoulder pain. He does not remember any specific injury but has been playing a lot of tennis during the past 4 months. He tells you that “opposing players no longer fear my serve.” It has become difficult and painful for him to reach overhead and behind him. Even rolling onto his shoulder in bed is painful. On examination of the right shoulder, there is full range of motion in all planes with obvious discomfort at end ranges of flexion, abduction, and internal rotation. There is significant pain when you place the shoulder in a position of 90 degrees flexion and then internally rotate. There is also moderate weakness with abduction and external rotation of the shoulder. The rest of the musculoskeletal examination is normal.
Subacromial bursitis is a common etiology of shoulder pain. It results from inflammation of the bursa, a sac of tissue present under the acromion process of the shoulderSubarcomial bursitis

  • The inflammation is usually brought about by repetitive overhead activities or trauma
  • Pain on motion and at rest can cause fluid to accumulate. The presentation is very similar to what you would see with subacromial impingement

DX: Diagnosis is by history and physical examination, including provocative maneuvers

  • Suspected rotator cuff injury can be further evaluated with MRI or Ultrasound
  • Aspirate if fever, diabetic or immunocompromised

TX: includes prevention of the precipitating factors, rest, and NSAIDs. Cortisone injections can be helpful

References: Merck Manual · UpToDate

Glenohumeral Joint Osteoarthritis

Glenohumeral Joint Osteoarthritis

Patient will present as → a 66-year-old male with chronic right shoulder pain and crepitus. On physical exam, his rotator cuff strength is 5/5. He has pain with both passive and active range of motion. Radiographs are shown here and here. An MRI is performed and shows no evidence of a rotator cuff tear.
Degenerative shoulder (glenohumeral) osteoarthritis is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone with narrowing of the glenohumeral joint

  • The more the patient does the more pain he/she will haveGlenohumeral joint arthrits
  • More common in the elderly, may be associated with throwing athletes at a younger age
  • Presents with pain at night and pain with activities involving shoulder motion
  • On physical exam will have tenderness at the GH joint, flattening of the anterior shoulder contour due to posterior subluxation of the humeral head, functional limitations at the GH joint - decreased external rotation, and painful shoulder range of motion

DX: Radiographs demonstrate subchondral sclerosis and osteophytes at the inferior aspect of the humeral head

  • MRI may be indicated to evaluate rotator cuff tendon

TX: NSAIDs, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections

  • Total shoulder arthroplasty if unresponsive to nonoperative treatment

References: Merck Manual · UpToDate

Question 1
A 33-year-old man complains of left anterior shoulder pain for 4 weeks. The pain is made worse with overhead activities. On examination, you note maximal pain in the shoulder with palpation between the greater and lesser tubercle. Pain in the shoulder is exacerbated when the arm is held at the side, elbow flexed to 90 ° and the patient is asked to supinate and flex the forearm against your resistance. On the basis of this presentation, what is the most likely diagnosis?  
A
rotator cuff tendonitis
B
myocardial infarction
C
anterior shoulder dislocation
D
rotator cuff tear
E
bicipital tendonitis
Question 1 Explanation: 
Bicipital tendonitis is an inflammation of the long head of the biceps tendon and the tendon sheath causes anterior shoulder pain that resembles and often accompanies coexisting rotator cuff tendonitis. Tenderness with bicipital tendonitis is reproduced with Yergason test. During Yergason test, the shoulder pain is exacerbated when the arm is held at the side, elbow flexed to 90 °, and the patient asked to supinate and flex the forearm against your resistance. Rotator cuff injuries often accompany bicipital tendonitis, and bicipital tendonitis can occur secondary to compensation for rotator cuff disorders or labral tears. In this case, the pain is clearly reproduced in a pattern suggestive of bicipital tendonitis. Myocardial infarction can present as shoulder pain and should always be considered in patients, especially those with known cardiac risk factors.
Question 2
A 62-year-old man presents complaining of progressively worse right shoulder pain for 5 weeks. The pain is located anterolaterally and is aggravated by overhead activities. The patient notes significant pain when trying to sleep with his arm in a forward-flexed position and his hand behind his head. The patient notes weakness of the right arm and states that he has noticed that he uses the arm less because of the pain. On physical examination, you elevate the patient's arms to 90 °, abduct to 30 °, and internally rotate the arms with the thumbs pointing downward. You note weakness and drooping of the right arm with this maneuver that is exacerbated when you apply downward pressure to the right arm. On the basis of this presentation, what is the most likely injured structure?
A
infraspinatus tendon
B
supraspinatus tendon
C
teres minor tendon
D
subscapularis tendon
E
bicipital tendon
Question 2 Explanation: 
The maneuver described is commonly referred to as the supraspinatus strength test or the “empty the can” test. Weakness in this maneuver is suggestive of injury to supraspinatus tendon. The teres minor and infraspinatus tendons are external rotators and are often tested with the arm at 90 ° of elbow flexion with the patient attempting to externally rotate against resistance. The subscapularis is also tested at 90 ° of elbow flexion with resistance applied as the patient attempts to internally rotate against resistance.
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Shoulder Fractures/dislocations (ReelDx + Lecture) (Prev Lesson)
(Next Lesson) Disorders of the Forearm, Wrist and Hand (PEARLS)
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