Neoplasms of the Genitourinary System (PEARLS)
The NCCPA™ PANCE Genitourinary Content Blueprint GU neoplastic diseases
Patient will present as → an 85-year-old man who comes to his primary care provider after a week of hematuria. He has not been ill lately and has had no complaints of pain on urination. A CT scan with contrast is ordered demonstrating a variable filling defect.
- Cigarette smoker
- Painless gross hematuria
- Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type
- Cystoscopy with biopsy is the gold standard for initial diagnosis
Treatments include surgery, biological therapy, and chemotherapy
||The diagnosis of penile carcinoma should be suspected in men who present with a penile mass or ulcer, particularly in those who are uncircumcised
- The diagnosis requires biopsy for tissue confirmation
Treatment involves surgery for all stages of penile cancer. Other options include radiation and chemotherapy
Patient will present as → a 71-year-old male who presents with nocturia, urgency, weak stream, terminal dribbling, hematuria, and lower back pain over the past four months. He has also experienced weight loss and fatigue.
Symptoms include difficulty with urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all
- The most common area is the peripheral zone
- On DRE carcinoma is characteristically a hard, irregular, and nodular
Tumor marker is PSA (also elevated in BPH)
- PSA is considered normal < 4
- PSA > 4 think BPH, prostate CA and prostatitis
Annual prostate cancer screening
- White male with average risk screen at 50 years old
- Black male, positive family history, or + BRCA mutations - screen at 40 years old
Prostate-specific Antigen, Digital Rectal Examination, and Transrectal Ultrasonography
- If PSA level >10 ng/mL, TRUS with biopsy is indicated, regardless of DRE findings.
- If DRE is abnormal, TRUS with biopsy is indicated, regardless of PSA level.
- If PSA is <4.0 ng/mL and DRE is negative, annual follow-up is indicated
- If PSA is 4.1 to 10.0 and DRE is negative, a biopsy is usually recommended
Some types of prostate cancer grow slowly. In some of these cases, monitoring is recommended
- Other types are aggressive and require radiation, surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, or other treatments.
||A 22-year-old male who develops a firm, painless, non-tender testicular mass with elevated serum β-HCG
- Presents as a firm, painless, non-tender testicular mass and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
- Seminoma is the most common type (60%)
- Risk factors include a history of cryptorchidism
- Diagnostic studies include ultrasound. Tumor markers: AFP, βHCG
Treatments include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy
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