|Adenopathy||Adenopathy: enlargement of lymph nodes due to gynecologic infections, malignancy or inflammation.
|Benign breast disease: fibroadenomas and fibrocystic breast disease||A 28-year-old woman with unilateral green-brown nipple discharge increasing immediately before menses
Fibroadenoma: Solid, mobile, well-circumscribed round breast mass. Most common breast tumor in women < 30 years.
Fibrocystic breast disease: common benign breast condition consisting of fibrous and cystic changes in breast. Breast pain or tenderness that varies with the menstrual cycle; cysts; and fibrous (“nodular”) fullness.
|Breast carcinoma||Most common malignancy in women: breast mass- immobile, irregular, nipple retraction, bloody nipple discharge, spiculated mass on mammogram
Risk factors (increased exposure to estrogen): NAACP
USPSTF guidelines for breast cancer screening:
Most common type - Infiltrating Intraductal Carcinoma
Sites of metastases:
|Nipple discharge||Intraductal papilloma - the most common cause of bloody nipple discharge|
|Pain||32-year-old lactating female with breast pain, swelling, fever, chills and a fluctuant mass of her left breast. The area directly above the lesion is warm, erythematous and tender to touch
Mastitis: superficial infection of the breast - usually occurs during breastfeeding.
Breast abscess: often a progression of mastitis
Skin changes during pregnancy
Melasma (ie, chloasma or mask of pregnancy) is the most cosmetically disturbing pigmentary change and occurs in up to 75 percent of pregnant women
Vascular changes — Estrogen, and other factors, cause vascular distention and instability, and proliferation of blood vessels during pregnancy
Striae gravidarum — Connective tissue changes, such as stretch marks (ie, striae distensae, striae gravidarum), are a common source of cosmetic concerns among pregnant women
Pruritus in pregnant women may be physiologic, related to a flare of disorder present prior to conception, or related to pregnancy-specific dermatoses
Hirsutism is noted most frequently on the face, but may also be seen on the arms, legs, back, and suprapubic region
Nails grow faster during gestation. Changes that may occur include development of transverse grooves, subungual keratosis, and distal onycholysis, and melanonychia
Androgenic alopecia — Rarely, late in pregnancy, hair in the frontoparietal area recedes in a mild form of androgenic alopecia
Vaginal – Bluish/purplish coloration of the vagina (Chadwick sign) and cervix (Goodell sign) are early anatomic changes historically important in the diagnosis of pregnancy