PANCE Blueprint Pulmonary (10%)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Patient will present as → a 55-year-old female who is a current smoker presents with a 9-month history of respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea on exertion, thoracic pain and dry cough, which were preceded by a pulmonary infection. On auscultation you hear inspiratory crackles. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) show only mild impairment of vital capacity with decreased lung volume and a normal to increased FEV1/FVC ratio

Chronic progressive lung disorder characterized by increasing scarring, which ultimately reduces the capacity of the lungs; etiology unknown

  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common of all interstitial lung diseases
  • In order to be considered "idiopathic", you must be sure to rule out other common causes such as drugs, and environmental or occupational exposures.

Common "non-idiopathic" causes of pulmonary fibrosis which must be ruled out

  • Cigarette smoking
  • Certain viral infections
  • Exposure to environmental pollutants, including silica and hard metal dusts, bacteria and animal proteins, and gases and fumes
  • The use of certain medicines (methotrexate, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, rituximab, bleomycin, and cyclophosphamide)
  • Genetics
  • Radiation treatment
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

CXR shows fibrosis

  • CT chest: diffuse patchy fibrosis with pleural based honeycombing
  • PFTs will demonstrate a restrictive pattern - opposite of what you would see with asthma
    • Decreased lung volume with a normal to increased FEV1/FVC ratio.

Treatment includes the judicial use of corticosteroids, O2, and eventually lung transplant

Chest CT showing classic "honeycombing"

Chest CT showing classic "honeycombing"

Lung diseases can be classified as either restrictive or obstructive. Restrictive lung diseases cause a decrease in lung volume. Obstructive lung diseases trap air in the lungs and therefore increase lung volume.
IM_BIO_RestrictiveVsObstructive_v1.4.jpg_ Restrictive lung diseases can be caused by either poor breathing mechanics, a result of conditions like myasthenia gravis, obesity, and scoliosis. They can also result from interstitial lung disease such as pneumoconioses or ARDS. Lung volume decreases in restrictive lung disease and the FEV1/FVC ratio is greater than 80% due to a significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC). FEV1 is the forced expiratory volume in 1 second or the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out in one second, after full inspiration. FVC is the forced vital capacity or the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out after full inspiration. Both these values can be measured by spirometry. The ratio between the FEV1 and FVC can help distinguish between restrictive and obstructive lung diseases. A ratio greater than 80% suggests a restrictive condition.

Obstructive lung disease is characterized by airway obstruction and it is associated with inflammation of the airways and problems exhaling. Types of obstructive lung disease are asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, and COPD. Obstructive lung disease results in air trapping in the lungs which expands the lung volume over time. A decrease in FEV1/FVC ratio suggests an obstructive condition.

Restrictive vs. Obstructive Lung Diseases Picmonic

Question 1
Which of the following is a common presenting clinical manifestation of a patient with interstitial lung disease?
A
Early inspiratory crackles
Hint:
Late, not early, inspiratory crackles are associated with interstitial lung disease.
B
Progressive dyspnea on exertion
C
Productive cough with copious sputum
Hint:
A productive cough of copious amounts of sputum is most typical of a patient with chronic bronchitis.
D
Decreased breath sounds with hyperresonant percussion
Hint:
Physical examination findings of decreased breath sounds with hyperresonant percussion is consistent with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive lung disease.
Question 1 Explanation: 
Patients with interstitial lung disease commonly present with progressive dyspnea on exertion and a cough with minimal sputum production.
Question 2
A 74-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation presents to the clinic for follow-up of his shortness of breath. Patient's medications include amiodarone (Cordarone) and metoprolol (Lopressor). His chest x-ray reveals patchy ground-glass infiltrates. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A
COPD
Hint:
COPD appears as hyperinflation with flattening of the diaphragm on chest radiograph
B
Tuberculosis
Hint:
Tuberculosis presents with pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph most often apical; cavitations may be seen with progressive primary tuberculosis.
C
Bronchiectasis
Hint:
Chest x-ray in bronchiectasis shows dilated and thickened bronchi that appear as ring-like markings.
D
Pulmonary fibrosis
Question 2 Explanation: 
Pulmonary fibrosis presents with ground-glass infiltrates on CXR and is often associated with certain medication use.
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Restrictive Pulmonary Disease (PEARLS) (Prev Lesson)
(Next Lesson) Pneumoconiosis
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