PANCE Blueprint Pulmonary (12%)

Other Pulmonary Disease (PEARLS)

The NCCPA™ PANCE and PANRE Pulmonary Content Blueprint classifies three types of pulmonary disease as "other"

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema

Etiology: Sepsis, severe trauma, aspiration of gastric contents, near drowning

Presentation:

  • Rapid onset of profound dyspnea occurring 12-24 hours after the precipitating event.
  • Tachypnea, pink frothy sputum, crackles

Diagnostic studies:

Chest radiograph: air bronchograms and bilaterally fluffy infiltrate

Normal BNP, pulmonary wedge pressure, left ventricle function and echocardiogram

Treatment: Underlying cause and intubation positive pressure oxygen

Hyaline membrane disease Etiology: Insufficient surfactant

Population: Preterm newborn

Chest radiograph: Ground glass appearance, air bronchograms, bilateral atelectasis

Treatment: Ventilation and steroids

Foreign body aspiration Presentation (depends on location of obstruction)

  • Inspiratory stridor if high in the airway
  • Wheezing and decreased breath sounds if low in the airway

Complications: Pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, asphyxia

Treatment: Remove foreign body with bronchoscope

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