The NCCPA™ PANCE and PANRE Pulmonary Content Blueprint requires you to understand and differentiate between 4 types of infectious pneumonias
|Bacterial pneumonia (ReelDx)||S. Pneumoniae - Rust-colored sputum - common in patients with splenectomy
S. Aureus - Salmon colored sputum - MRSA treat with vancomycin
Pseudomonas - Ventilators, patients become sick fast - treat with 2 antibiotics
Legionella - low NA+ (hyponatremia), GI symptoms (diarrhea) and high fever
Mycoplasma - Young people living in dorms, (+) cold agglutinins, bullous myringitis
Klebsiella - currant jelly sputum, drinkers, aspiration
|Viral pneumonia||Adults → Flu is the most common viral cause
Kids → RSV, 1st episode of wheezing
|Fungal pneumonia||Valley Fever = Coccidioides – Look for this in a patient with non-remitting cough/bronchitis non-responsive to conventional treatments. Caused by fungal inhalation in western states.
Histoplasma capsulatum - bird or bat droppings (caves, zoo, bird),
Cryptococcus – found in soil can disseminate and can cause meningitis.
Pulmonary aspergillosis: The majority of cases occur in people with underlying illnesses such as tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but with otherwise healthy
|HIV-related pneumonia||Formerly PCP Pneumonia now called (PJP) Pneumocystis jiroveci (there are other HIV-related pneumonias but this is the one you will need to know for the test) Common in HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 count of less than 200, treat (and prophylax) with Bactrim|