The NCCPA™ PANCE Pulmonary Content Blueprint covers two obstructive pulmonary diseases
|Obstructive lung disease is characterized by airway obstruction and associated with inflammation of the airways. Air trapping as a result of airway obstruction causes an increased in the residual volume of the lungs, which means the volume of air left in the lungs after fully exhaling is increased. Forced vital capacity, the volume of air that can be forcibly blown out after one full inspiration, is decreased. FEV1, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second or the volume of air that can be forcibly blown out in 1 second, is also decreased. More importantly, the ratio of FEV1/FVC is decreased because even though FVC is decreased, the FEV1 decreases even greater resulting in an overall decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio. This can be clearly distinguished from restrictive lung disease which has a ratio greater than 80%. Common obstructive lung diseases include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and bronchiectasis.|
|Chronic bronchitis||Defined as a chronic cough that is productive of phlegm occurring on most days for 3 months of the year for 2 or more consecutive years without an otherwise-defined acute cause
Physical exam: wheezes, rales, and rhonchi
Presentation: Consequence of destruction of alveolar septae = Pink puffers - The body's natural response to ↓ lung function is chronic hyperventilation
Physical Exam: Minimal cough, quite lungs, thin, barrel chest.
Chest X-ray will reveal flattened diaphragm, hyperinflation and small, thin appearing heart