Patient will present as → a 25-year-old cystic fibrosis patient complaining of chronic, frequent coughing productive of yellow and green sputum. She recently recovered from a Pseudomonas spp. pneumonia requiring hospitalization. On physical examination you notice foul breath, purulent sputum and hemoptysis along with a CXR demonstrating dilated and thickened airways with “plate-like” atelectasis (scarring).
Bronchiectasis is described as the permanent dilation or destruction of the bronchial walls
It is best considered the common endpoint of various disorders that cause chronic airway inflammation
The dilation and destruction of larger bronchi is caused by chronic infection and inflammation. Common causes are cystic fibrosis, immune defects, and recurrent infections, though some cases seem to be idiopathic
- Most common cause is Cystic fibrosis
- < 18 years-old Staphylococcal infections
- > 18 years old Pseudomonas infection
CXR – linear ("tram track") lung markings, atelectasis, dilated and thickened airways “Plate-like” atelectasis (scarring)
- Gold standard diagnosis is – CT of the chest
Ambulatory oxygen, aggressive antibiotics, CPT (chest physiotherapy = bang on the back) and eventually lung transplant
|Bronchiectasis is an obstructive lung disease caused by bronchial obstruction or chronic necrotizing infection. The subsequent muscle and elastic tissue damage permanently dilates the airways, which may trap air in the lungs and lead to collapse of the bronchioles. Common symptoms include increased purulent sputum production and hemoptysis. Bronchiectasis is associated with poor ciliary motility, a result of congenital causes like Kartagener's Syndrome, or acquired causes like smoking. Other predisposing conditions are cystic fibrosis, which impairs clearance of mucus from the airways, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA), an immune response to Aspergillus fungus.|
Barring underlying pulmonary pathology,the chest x-ray in acute bronchitis should be normal.
While the history may suggest pneumonia, the radiographic findings do not support this diagnosis.
Tuberculosis would present with cavitating granuloma formation more commonly at the apices.
TB would present with CXR findings in the apical or posterior segments of the upper lobes.
Radiographic findings of adenocarcinoma include enlarged nodule or mass; persistent opacity, atelectasis or pleural effusion. The sputum would not likely be foul smelling.
Pulmonary fibrosis does not present with dilated bronchi or ring-like markings on CXR