Corneal disorders (PEARLS)
NCCPA™ PANCE Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat Content Blueprint eye disorders ⇒ corneal disorders
Patient presents as → a 78-year-old man who complains of slowly progressive vision loss over the last several years. He describes his vision as if he is looking through “dirty glass” and reports seeing a white halo around lights. On physical exam, there is clouding of the lens and no red reflex.
Blurred vision over months or years, halos around lights. Clouding of the Lens (versus clouding of cornea = glaucoma)
- Risk factors: aging, hypoparathyroid, steroid use, lovastatin
DX: is by fundoscopy "black on red background" ⇒ cataract appears dark against the red reflex on exam
- Slit-lamp to magnify, difficult to see the fundus
Tx: Surgical removal is definitive
Patient will present as →
a 34-year-old contact lens wearer
with severe pain
, redness, and photophobia. Eyes are injected with cloudy discharge unilaterally. A dense corneal infiltrate
is visible with fluorescein staining.
Contact lens wearers, caused by a deep infection in the cornea by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
DX: Fluorescein stain is diagnostic
- Corneal cultures should be obtained before starting antibiotics
TX: Immediate referral - if an immediate referral is not possible, it is reasonable to start topical ophthalmic antibiotics without delay
|Keratitis and infectious corneal disorders
Patient will present as → a 37-year-old female with an intense, tearing pain in her right eye. She was recently placed on topical corticosteroids for suspected allergic conjunctivitis. On visual inspection the conjunctiva appears red. A fluorescein stain of the eye exhibits a shallow ulcer with a dendritic appearance and irregular borders.
Keratitis is a condition in which the cornea becomes inflamed and is often marked by pain, impaired eyesight, photophobia, and red eye
- Infectious keratitis can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites
- Viral infection of the cornea is often caused by the herpes simplex virus which causes a dendritic ulcer with fluorescein stain
- Bacterial infectious keratitis - improper contact lens wear is the largest risk factor and commonly presents with a corneal opacity or infiltrate (typically a round white spot)
DX: With fluorescein staining of the cornea, epithelial herpes keratitis is characterized by the presence of dendritic lesions
- The diagnostic finding in bacterial keratitis is a corneal opacity or infiltrate (typically a round white spot) in association with red eye, photophobia, and foreign body sensation.
TX: Treat herpes keratitis with topical antiviral
- Bacterial keratitis requires urgent ophthalmological referral and prompt initiation of topical bactericidal antibiotics (ideally after obtaining cultures)
You are called to see a 50-year-old with a growth extending over the cornea
- Gender: Male
- Age: 50 years
Signs and Symptoms
- Eye pain; growth inside conjunctive and extending over the cornea
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Patient will present as → a 65-year-old male Hispanic farmworker who is brought to you by his concerned wife. She reports he has had this “thing” on his left eye for years and refuses to seek care. He denies pain or discharge from the affected eye. Physical exam reveals an elevated, superficial, fleshy, triangular-shaped fibrovascular mass in the inner corner/nasal side of the left eye.
Elevated, superficial, fleshy, triangular-shaped “growing” fibrovascular mass (most common in the inner corner/nasal side of the eye).
- Pterygium is associated with increased sun exposure and climates where there is wind, sand, and dust
DX: This is a clinical diagnosis
TX: Only surgically remove when vision is affected
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