|Osmosis (High Yield Nasopharyngeal Diseases)|
|Epistaxis (ReelDx)||Kiesselbach's Plexus or Little's Area is the most common site for anterior bleeds
Sphenopalatine artery (Woodruff’s plexus) is generally the source of severe posterior nosebleed, direct pressure for 15 minutes, posterior balloon packing is used to treat posterior epistaxis
TX: Most nosebleeds are anterior and stop with direct pressure
|Nasal polyps||Teardrop-shaped growths that form in the nose or sinuses
TX: Topical nasal corticosteroid (3-month course) is the initial treatment choice. This is effective for small polyps and can reduce the need for surgical intervention.
|Rhinitis (ReelDx)||Clear nasal drainage, pruritis, pale, bluish, boggy mucosa, allergic shiners, IgE mediated mast cell histamine release.
TX: Avoid any known allergens and use antihistamines, cromolyn sodium, nasal or systemic corticosteroids, nasal saline drops or washes, and immunotherapy
|Sinusitis (ReelDx)||After URI. Sinus pain/pressure (worse with bending down and leaning forward). Facial tap elicits pain.
TX: Indications for antibiotics in rhinosinusitis include the duration of symptoms >10 days without improvement. Treatment five to seven days
Chronic sinusitis: Therapy is typically given for at least three weeks and may be extended for up to ten weeks in refractory cases
|Trauma and Nasal foreign body (ReelDx)||Purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge
TX: Prior to removal consider using oxymetazoline drops to shrink the mucous membrane